Integrated Endocrine Physiology

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  • Created by: Becca
  • Created on: 26-12-13 16:55
Define synergistic hormones. Give examples
Produce much greater enhanced response that sum of either of hormones alone e.g. THs on activity of catecholamines/SNS, CRH & AVP (ADH) on ACTH release, cortisol & GH on metabolism
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Define permissive hormones. Give examples
Presence of one hormone allows a second hormone to act e.g. cortisol on catecholamine activity, THs on GH activity in growth promotion
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What type of growth is controlled by integrated hormones?
Structural growth, not weight gain - net protein synthesis, lengthening of bones, increased number & size of cells
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What factors affect growth?
Genetic: correlation between parental & offspring height (gender specific). Socioeconomic/Nutritional: association with malabsorption. Chronic disease & stress: anti-growth activity of cortisol. Endocrine hormones: mainly growth hormones
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Where are growth hormones synthesised? What is their role? How do they act?
Synthesised in somatotrophs in anterior pituitary (most abundant of hormones secreted). Major role in growth but also important role in metabolism. All act via GH receptors on target cells
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What are the direct actions of growth hormones?
Metabolism: increased lipolysis/AA uptake/protein synthesis/gluconeogenesis, decreased glucose uptake, anti-insulin & diabetogenic -> shift of source of fuel from CHOs to fats, synergism between cortisol & GH
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What are the indirect actions of growth hormones?
Promote growth: stimulate release of growth factors (IGF-1/2) from liver & other cell types. Growth via the action of IGF-1 on cells -> increase cell size (lean body mass), increase cell number (organ size), promote skeletal growth (increased height)
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What is the role of thyroid hormones, insulin & sex hormones in growth?
Thyroid: permissive role on GH activity, key role in CNS development. Insulin: important growth promoter (anabolic) & intra-uterine growth factor. Sex hormones: linear growth, muscle building & stop elongation by promoting epiphyseal plate closure
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What organs do prolactin, LH/FSH, TSH & ACTH act on?
Prolactin -> breast. LH/FSH -> testes/ovaries. TSH -> thyroid. ACTH -> adrenal cortext
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What is the effect of glucocorticoids & GHs?
Dual effect: initial synergism on metabolism - mobilise reserves, increase availability of glucose. Chronic high glucocorticoid concentration inhibits GH releasee
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Abnormal hormonal status or pathological causes due to disturbances in the endocrine system can lead to?
Stunted growth (short stature, pituitary dwarfism, hypothyroidism, Cushing's, congenital adrenal hyperplasia) & accelerated growth (gigatism, hyperthyroidism, sexual precocity, hypogonadism)
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Growth hormone deficiency can result in a wide variety of non-specific symptoms, such as?
Psychological changes, malaise, excessive tiredness, anxiety, depression, osteoporosis, poor muscular tone, decrease lean body mass, impair hair growth & increase in adipose tisse
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Card 2

Front

Define permissive hormones. Give examples

Back

Presence of one hormone allows a second hormone to act e.g. cortisol on catecholamine activity, THs on GH activity in growth promotion

Card 3

Front

What type of growth is controlled by integrated hormones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What factors affect growth?

Back

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Card 5

Front

Where are growth hormones synthesised? What is their role? How do they act?

Back

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