Inorganic chemistry transition metals

why do transition metals have certain characteristics
because of incomplete d sub levels in atoms or ions
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what are the characteristics of transition metals
complex formation, variable oxidation states, catalytic activity, coloured ions
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what is a complex
its a central metal ion surrounded by ligands
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what is a ligand
it is an ion, atom or molecule which can donate a lone pair of electrons
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what is coordinate bonding
it is when the shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond come from one of the atoms
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what is the coordination number
the number of coordinate bonds formed to a central metal ion
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what are the three monodente ligands
H2O,NH3, Cl-
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what are the bidentate ligands
NH2CH2CH2Nh2 and ethanedioate C2O4^2-
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what is an example of a multidentate ligand
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what is similar about the ligands NH3 and H2O
they are similar in size and are uncharged
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what happens to the charge of the complex when h2o or NH3 nis exchanged
there is no change in the coordination number as they are uncharged
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write the incomplete formation equation of copper hydroxide and ammonia
[Cu(H2O)6]^2+ + 4NH3 ----> [Cu(NH3 )4 (H2O)2 ]2+ (aq) + 4H2O (l)
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why is there a change in coordination number when cl- is exchanged
because the cl- ion is larger so there can be a change in coordination number
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Haem is an iron 2 complex with.........
a multidentate ligand
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oxygen forms a coordinate bond with. haemoglobin so...
it can be transported through the blood
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what happens when CO is in the body
The CO forms a stronger coordinate bond with the haemoglobin than oxygen meaning it replaces it
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what is the chelate effect
the substitution of monodentate ligands with bidentate or multidentate ligands to make a more stable molecule
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describe the chelate effect in thsi equation in terms of enthalpy and entropy [Cu(H2O)6 ]2+ (aq) + EDTA4- (aq) -------> [Cu (EDTA)]2- (aq) + 6H2O (l)
The copper goes from having unidentate ligands to having bidentate ligands there is an increase in entropy as the number of moles increases from 2 to 7 creating more disorder enthalpy is small but entropy is positive so gibbs is negative
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what sort of complexes do transition metals form and what are the ligands
transition metals usually form octahedral complexes with H2O or NH3
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what complex if formed when a transition metals bond with a cl-
it forms a tetrahedral complex
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what are the two types of isomerism a complex can show
a cis-trans stereoisomerism
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what stereoisomer is cisplatin
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what cmplex does Ag+ form and where is it used
a linear complex and it is used in tollens reagent
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what do colour changes in ions depend on
oxidation state,coordination number, ligand
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how do colour changes arise in transition metal ions
it occurs from electronic transitions from the ground state to the excited state a portion of the light is absorbed however some is reflected to give a coloured ion
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what is the equation for the energy difference between split orbitals
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how does a colour change in a metal ion occur
a change in the coordination number or the ligand will alter the energy split
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what is special about the colour of scandium and zinc
scandium has no d electons left to move around and zinc has no space for electron transfer
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how is the concentration of coloured ions determined
by using a spectrometer
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what is the method for determining a colour concentration
add an appropriate ligand to intensify colour,make up solutions of known concentrations,measure absorption v transmisiion, plot graph, measure concentration of unknown and compare
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what do transition metals show
variable oxidation states
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Addition of zinc to vanadium in acidic solution does what
puts the vandium through a series of reduction reactions going from yellow,to blue,to green to violet
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what influences the redox potential for a transition metal to go from a higher oxidation state to a lower one
the ph and the ligand
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what is [Ag(NH3 )2 ]+ used for
used in tollens reagent to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones
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what is the redox titration reaction between fe2+ and MnO4-
the reaction goes from purple to colourless because manganate oxide is purple
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what is the reaction between an ethandioate ion and manganate oxide
the reaction is slow to start with in order to make reaction go faster is to heat up the conical flask up to 60 degrees
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Card 2


what are the characteristics of transition metals


complex formation, variable oxidation states, catalytic activity, coloured ions

Card 3


what is a complex


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Card 4


what is a ligand


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Card 5


what is coordinate bonding


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