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  • Created by: elyornais
  • Created on: 24-01-15 14:21
What happens during phagocytosis?
Phagocyte is attracted to pathogen by chemo-attractants. The phagocyte binds to the pathogen. Pathogen gets engulfed, forming a phagosome vesicle. Lysosomes within phagocyte move towards phagosome. Lysosome releases enzymes. Digests pathogen.
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What is an antigen?
Molecules found on surface of cells that stimulate an immune response.
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What is a antibody?
Proteins produced in immune system that helps fight infection.
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What does a T lymphocyte respond to?
Antigens attached to a body cell.
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What do T helper cells do?
Fit exactly onto antigens presented on cell surface membrane and activates other T cells to divide rapidly to form clones.
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What do cloned T cells do?
1.Develop into memory cells. 2.Stimulate phagocytosis. 3.Stimulate B cell division. 4. Kill infected cells
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What are plasma cells?
Cells from B lymphocytes that rapidly secrete large numbers of antibodies. Involved in the primary immune response.
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What are memory cells?
Cells with long lives that circulate in the blood. When they encounter the same antigen, the divide rapidly and develop into plasma and memory cells. Provides long term immunity and is know as the secondary immune response.
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What is meant by antigenic variability?
When antigens that viruses are made up of are constantly changing.
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies that arise from a single clone of cells.
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Give two uses of monoclonal antibodies.
1.Seperation of a chemical from a mixture. 2. Transplant surgery- The antibodies 'knock out' the T cells that are involved in rejecting the organ.
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to treat cancer?
They would only attach themselves to cancer cells. Then they would be used to activate a cytotoxic drug. The drug will only be activated by cells with the monoclonal antibodies attached. Cancer cells will be destroyed without damaging normal cells.
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Distinguish between active immunity and passive immunity.
With active immunity, individuals are stimulated to produce their own antibodies whereas with passive immunity, antibodies are introduced from outside rather than being produced by the individual.
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Give 3 disadvantages of vaccines.
1. There may be side effects such as pain and swelling. 2. Individuals may develop the disease immediately after vaccination before their immune system can prevent it. 3. The pathogen may mutate frequently and cause disease.
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Card 2


What is an antigen?


Molecules found on surface of cells that stimulate an immune response.

Card 3


What is a antibody?


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Card 4


What does a T lymphocyte respond to?


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Card 5


What do T helper cells do?


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