Human Biology Key words

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an ecological factor that makes up part of the non-biological of an organism eg. temperature, pH, rainfall and humidity
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They way the ciliary muscles cause the lens to change shape
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Acne Vulgaris
A skin condition caused by over-activity of sebaceous glands
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Acrosome reaction
a reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm that enables the sperm to digest the zona pellucida
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Action potential
change that occurs in the electrical charge across the membrane of a neurone when it is simulated causing a nerve impulse
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Aerobic respiration
respiration when oxygen is avaliable. This includes gylcolysis, the link reaction, kreb cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
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an aleternative form of a gene
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Allele frequencies
the number of time an allele occures within the gene pool
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A normally harmless substance that causes the immune system to produce an immune response in someone who is allergic
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Allopatric speciation
Occurs when populations are prevented from interbreeding because they become geographically isolated
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The membrane sac that protects the foetus
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amniotic fluid
the fluid that is secreted by the amnion
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anaerobic respiration
respiration in the absence of oxygen. this consists of only glycosis
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Anaphylatic shock
a sudden, accute and potentially fatal reaction to an allergen
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Antagonistic pair
a pair of muscles that work in opposite ways to each other
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a sequence of the three adjacent nucleotides on a molecule of transfer RNA thst ssre complementary to a particular codon on a messenger RNA molecule
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drugs that prevent histamines from binding histamine receptors, so preventing they symproms of an allergy from developing
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A substance that inhibits or prevents the growth of microorganisms that cause infection
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This is programmed cell death, eg when tumour supressor genes cause cells badly damaged Dna to 'commit suicide'
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Aqeous humour
Clear watery fluid of the eye found in front of the lens
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Aseptic technique
A series of procedures used to transfer microorganisms without contamintaing the microbial culture with enviromental microorganisms or allowing microorg' from the culture to escape into the enviroment
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ATP ( Adenosine triphodphate)
The immediate source of energy for biologican processes. When ATP is hydrolysed to ADP, energy is released
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Autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that carries nerve impulses to glands and muscles that are not under voluntary control
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A single long projection from the nerve cell body that carries nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body
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B cell (B lymphocyte)
Type of white blood cell that is produced and matures within the bone marrow. B cells produce antibodies as part of their role in immunity
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Basa matoblic rate
The rate at whichc we use energy to keep ourselves alive while we are at rest but not asleep
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Binocular Vision
Vision resulting from the visual fields of two eyes overlapping
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The variety of different organisms in a community
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Renewable energy sources made from biomass
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The total mass of living organisms in a community
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An ecological factor that makes up part of the living enviroment of an organism. Examples include food avaliability competition and predation
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The pair of homologus chromosomes that pair and form chiasmata in the first division of mitosis
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An early stage in embryo development consisting of a hollow ball of cells this is the stage at which the embryo implants into the uterus
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A barries method of contraception that consists of a latex or silicone cap designed to fit over the cervi
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Changes that occur in the sperm while they are in the female reproductive tract to make them capable of fertilising the oocyte
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Carbon footprint
A measure of the impact that human activities have one the amount of greenhouse gaeses produced measured in terms of kg of carbon dioxide produced per year
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Carbon offsetting
Compensating for emissions by making an equivalent greenhouse gas saving
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Cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
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Carrying capacity
The population size that can be sustained by an ecosystem
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Centeral Nervous system
the part of the human nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
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Cerebral cortex
The outer part of the brain concerned with conscious thought, interpretation of stimuli and memory
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The place at which the chromatids of homologus chromosomes wrap around each other and exchange pieces
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Chorionic villi
The villi that make up the surface of the placenta
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Choroid layer
The middle layer of the eye that contains blood vessels and melanin pigment
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Ciliary muscle
The smooth muscle of the eye that is respomsible for accomodation
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Average weather expierenced in a region over a long period
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Climate change
Change in climate that have been observed since the early part of the 1900's as a result of human activity
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Condition in which both allels for one gene in a heterozygous organism contribute to the phenotype
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A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid
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The first-formed breast milk. It is high in antibodies
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Organisms that live symbiotically eg microorganism that live on the skin and out-compete potential pathegens
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All the living organisms in an ecosystem at any given time
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Twins are said to be concordant for a characteristic if they are both similar for that characeteristic
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Widley used barrier method of contraception that consists of a thin latex sheath that is placed over the erect penis
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Sexual intercourse
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The front transparent part of the sclera that refracts light rays entering the eye
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Corpus luteum
A hormone producing structure formed from the ruptured follicle
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Cortical reaction
A reaction that alters the zona pellucida in order to prevent other sperm entering the oocyte
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Counter current flows
The flow of the mother's blood and the fetal blood in opposite direction, that ensure a concentration gradient all they way along the capillary in the placenta
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Crossing over
When chromatids break, and equivalent pieces of chromatid are exchanged at chiasmata during mitosis
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Organisims such as bacteria and fungi that break down feaces and the bodies of dead organisms
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a genetic code in which some anino acids may be encoded by more than one codon each
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An extension of a nerve impulses towards the cell body
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Animals such as eathworms that break down dead organic matter
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Twins are said to be discordant for a characteristic if they are different for that characteristic
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DNA ligase
Enzyme used in gentic engineering to join pieces of DNA eg to insert a gene into a cut plasmid
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DNA methylation
When methyl groups (-CH3) are added to cytosine base on the DNA whcih causes the repression of transcription of the DNA
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A term applied to an allele that is always expressed in the phenotype of an organism
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Ecological niche
The role activities and location of a population within a habitat
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An organ that responds to stimulation by a nerve impulse resulting in a change or response
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Electron acceptoe
A protein that accepts electrons for example in the thylakoid membrane that accepts excited electorns in the light-dependant stage of photosynthesis
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Electron tranfer chain
a series of electron acceptors found in the inner mitochondrial membrane
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Endocrine system
System of glands that secrete hormones
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The lining of the uterus
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Enviromental factors
Factors of an organisms surroundings and experiences such as diet and food avaliability
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Enviromental resistance
The collective term for the limiting factors such as dies and food availability
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Epigenetic imprinting
When during gametogenesis certain genes in both sperm and oocytes are modified by the addition of methyl (-CH3) groups
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A type of cell that contains a membrane-bound organelles
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Extracellular digestion
The digestion of matter that occurs outside the cell
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All the animal life in a n ecosystem
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The term for an unborn baby from 10 weeks after fertilisation when all the main organs have developed
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Fight or flight response
Refers to the body's reaction when faced with a threat. It results from the activity of sympathetic nervous system
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All pant life in an ecosystem
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Follicle stimulation hormome (FSH)
A hormone secretes by the pituitary gland that causes follicle development
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Frame quadrat
A square frame sometimes divided by string or wire into sudivisions that is used in sampling
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A sex cell that contains the haplois number of chromosomes
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The formation of gametes
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Collection of nerve cells bodies
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A length of DNA that occurs at a specific locus on a chromosome and codes for a particular protein or polypeptide
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Gene pool
All the genetic information (genes) present within a population at a given time
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Generator potential
Depolarisation of the membrane of a receptor cell as a result of a stimulus
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Genetic engineering
General term that covers the processes bu which the genes are manipulated altered or transferred from organism to organism
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Genetic factors
Factors such as the presence of certain alleles
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Genetic marker
The resisitance of a gene to a specific antiobiotic
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Geneticall modified organism
An organism that has had its DNA altered as a result of recombinant DNA technology
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The genetic composition of an organism
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Geographically isolated
The isolation of population of a species by a geographical barries such as river, so they can no longer interbreed
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Germinal epithelium
The epithelium that divides to produce gametes for example the outer layer of the seminiferous tubule
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First part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down anaerobically in the cytoplasm to two molecules of pyruvate
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Gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF)
A hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of FSH and LH
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Graafian follicle
A ball of cells surrounding an oocyte
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Stacks of thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast
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Greenhouse gases
gases present in the atmosphere which trap out-going lone wave radiation causing a rise in temperature eg carbon dioxide and methane
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The place where an organism lives, which is characterised by physical conditions and the types of other organisms present
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Condition in which the allels of a particular gene are different
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A chemical that is released when IgE antibodies bind to mast cell in an allergic reaction. Histamine plays a part in producing the symptoms of the allergy
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condition in which both allels of a particular gene carried by one individual are identic
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Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
a hormone secreted by the blastocyst and the developing placenta that forms the basis of pregnancy tests
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A person is hyperglycemic if their blood glucose level rises significantly above the normal level
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Overreaction of the immune system in reaction to allergen exposure
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A person is hypoglyceamic if their blood glucose level drops significantly below the normal level
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The area of the brain that regulates many homeostatic processes such as body temperature and blood water potential and stimulates the release of hormones by the pituitary gland
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When body temperature falls significantly and the normal heat conservation and heat generation responses of the body are unable to bring the body temperature back up
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IgE antibodies
Antibodies that belong to the immunoglobulin E group that are produced during an immune response
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Interspecific competition
Competition between organisms of different species
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Interstitial cells
Cells inbetween the seminiferous tubules that secrete testosterone
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Intrauterine device
A non-barries birth control that is placed inside the uterus it works by preventing the implantation of an embryo
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Portions of DNA within the gene that do not code for a polypeptide. The introns are removed from messenger RNA after transcription
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In vitro fertilisation (IVF)
A method of assisted conception in which fertilisation takes place in a glass dish
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Islets of Langerhans
Groups of cells in the pnacreas comprimising large a cells, which produce the hormone glucagon and small b cells which produce the hormone insulin
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The arrangment of chromosomes into their homologus pairs, starting withthe largest pair and ending with the smallest
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Krebs cycle
Series of aerobic biochemical reations in the matrix of the mitochondira of the eukaryotic cells. ATP is produced thrpigh the oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A produced from the breakdown of glucose
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Light-dependent stage
The stage of photosynthesis that is dependant on light and takes place in the grana
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Light-independent stage
The stage of photosynthesis that is not dependant on light and takes place in the stroma
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Limiting factors
Factors such as food supply that keep a population at a maximum size that can be sustatined by an ecosystem
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The position of a gene on a chromosome
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Luteinising hormone (LH)
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum
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Taking a breast radiograph designed to screen for breast cancer
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Mast cells
Cells of the immune system that are found in all tissues they release the histamine during an immune response
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The average set of values
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The middle value of a set of results
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The time of a female's first menstural cycle
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Mendelian ratio
The expected ration of phenotypes resulting from a genetic cross
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The time when a female permanently stops having menstrual cycles
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The shedding of the outer layer of the endometrium
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The most frequently occuring value in a set of values
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An early stage in embryo development consisting of a ball of cells that forms 3-4 days after fertilisation. The morula develops into the blastocyst
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Motor Neurone
Neurone that trasmits action potentials from the central nervous system to an effector, eg a muscle or gland
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A permanent change in the ammount or arrangement of a cells DNA
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Myelin sheath
A sheath consisiting of a fatty substance that surronds axons and dendrites in certain neurones. It is foremed from Schwann cells that wrap themselves around the neurone
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Smaller fibres that make up muscle tissue
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Natural selection
The process by which the best adap[ted organisms in a population survive reproduce and poss on their allels to their offspring
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negative feedback
A series of changes, important in homeostatis that result in the body's internal enviroment being restored to its normal level
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Neuromuscular junction
A synapse that occurs between a nerve cell and a muscle
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A nerve cell, comprising a cell body, axon and dendrites which is adapted to conduct action potentials
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One of a number of chemicals that are involved in communication between adjacent nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles
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Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of neurone
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Normal distribution
A bell-shaped curve produced when a certain distribution is plotted on a graph. The mode, median and mean are equal
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Null hypothesis
The hypothesis that there is no significant difference between observed and expected data
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The female sex hormone that stimulates the thickening of the endometrium
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an immature ovum
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Female gametes
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Where ova are produced
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Tube that carries oocytes to the uterus
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A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the contraction of the myometrium and the release of breast milk
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Parasympathetic nervous system
Part of the autonomic nervous system that is active under normal conditions
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Passive immunity
When a perosn recieves ready-made antibodies
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Patch testing
a type of allergy test that is carried out if a person already suffers from a skin allergy such as eczema or contact dermatitis
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A microorganism that causes disease
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Peptide bond
The chemical bond formed between two amino acids during condensation
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Peripheral nervous system
The nerve and the receptors of the nervous system
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The characterisitcs of an organism resulting from its allels
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Phenotypic variation
The total variation in the characteristics of an organism usually visible resulting from both its genotype and the effects of the enviroment
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Pituitary gland
The endocrine gland at the base of the brain
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Small circular piece of DNA found in bacterial cellsand used as a vector in genetic engineering
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Point quadrat
A sampling tool that consists of vertical legs, across which is fixed a horizontal bar with ten small holes along it
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Polar bodies
haploid nuclei produced in oogenesis when cells divide unequally
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Polygenic inheritance
Where more than one gene contributes to a phenotype
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Polymerase chain reaction
Process of making many copies of a specific sequence of DNA or part of a gene. It is used extensively in gene technology and genetic fingerprinting
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Positive feedback
Process which results in a factor in the body's internal enviroment, such as temperature, that departs from its normal level becoming further from its norm
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Postzygotic mechanisms
Reproductive isolating mechanism that takes effect after fertilisation
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Prezygotic mechanisms
Reproductive isolating mechanism that takes effect before fertilisation
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Primary consumers
Organisms that eat plants, and obtain their energy by respiring molecules obtained from plants
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Primary producers
Organisms that are able to produce organic materials from the inorganic molecules, carbon dioxide and water, in photosynthesis
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Short single-stranded nucleic acid sequences used in the polymerase chain reaction
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Substances that contain beneficial bacteria such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria
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A hormone that inhibits FSH and LH, and stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium
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A type of cell that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. These are bacteria cells
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A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk
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A cell adapted to detect changes in the enviroment
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Recombinant DNA
Modified DNA that results from genetic engineering
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Refractory period
Period during which the membrane of a neurone cannot be depolarised and no new action potential can be initiated
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A hormone secreted late in pregnancy that softens the cervix and makes the pelvis more flexible
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Renewable engery resources
Energy sources that are sustainably regenerated by natural processes
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Reproductive isolation
When groups within the population become isolated from one another and cannot interbreed
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Resting potential
The difference in charge between the negatively charged inside if a neurone and the outside of the neurone, when the neurone is at rest
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Restriction enzyme
An enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at a specific sequence of bases called a recognition sequence
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The inner layer of the eye that contains light sensitive rod and cone cells
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Reverse transcriptase
An enzyme found in HIV virus that is used in genetic engineering to make a single-stranded DNA copy of RNA
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RNA polymerase
Enzyme that joins together nucleotides to form messenger RNA during transcription
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Saltatory conduction
Propagation of a nerve impulse along s myelinated dendron or axon in which the action potential jumps from one node of ranvier to another
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A section of myofibril between two Z-lines that forms the basic structural unit of skeletal muscle
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Schwann cell
Cell around a neurone whose cell surface membrane wraps around the dendron or axon to form the myelin sheath
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The tough and fibrous outer layer of the eye
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A sac of skin that contains the testis
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Secondary consumers
Organisms that feed on primary consumers
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Selection pressure
The enviromental force alterin the frequency of alleles in a population
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Selective advantage
A variation that gives one organism an advantage over another organism, making it more likely that it will survive and reproduce
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Seminiferous tubules
Long tubules in the testes where the sperm are produced
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Sensory neurones
A neurone that transmits an action potential from a sensory receptor to the central nervous system
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Sertoli cells
Cells that provide developing sperm with nutrients
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Skewed distribution
A non bell-shaped distribution in whihc the mean, median and mode are all different
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Skin ***** testing
The first type of test carried out when a person is suspected to be an allergy sufferer
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Somatic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that carries impulses to skeletal muscles that carries impulses to skeletal muscles that are under conscious control
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The process by which new species develop
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A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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The male gamete
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Watery, enzyme containing fluid that surrounds the grana in the chloroplast
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The natural, progressive sequence of events where one community replaces the previous community over time, and which ends in the development of a climax community
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Sympathetic nervous system
Part of the automatic nervous system responsible for reacting to sress, emergencies and danger
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Sympatric speciation
Occurs when population living together become reproductively isolated
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The point at which two neurones communicate with each other
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Synaptic cleft
The gap between two neurones
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A drug that blocks the action of oestrogen, and is used to treat oestrogen positive breast cancer
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Where sperm are produced
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The male sex hormone that promotes the development of male sex hormones
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Sensory receptor cells found in the hypothalamus that monitor blood temperature
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Thylakoid membranes
Pigment containing membranes arranged in stacks inside chloroplasts
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A sampling tool used where conditions and organism may change. A tape is stretched across a habitat and quadrat samples are taken along a straight line at regular intervals. This is a systematic sampling method
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An organism is transgenic when its genetic composition has been altered by the addition of foreign DNA
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Trichromatic theory
The theory that refers to the perception of colours dependant on the proportions of the three different types of cone thst are stimulated
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Trophic levels
The different levels of the food chain
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The outer layer of cells of the blastocyst
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Umbilical cord
The cord that connects the fetus to the placenta and carries blood between the fetus and the placenta
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A carrier such as a plasmid which transfers DNA into a cell
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Vitreous humour
Clear-jelly like fluid found behind the lens in the eye. it holds the eyeball in shape.
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Waste heirarchy
Sets out the main options for managment of waste and is the primary tool for assessing the 'Best Practical Enviromental Option' (BPEO) for waste managment
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Fertilised ovum
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Card 2


They way the ciliary muscles cause the lens to change shape



Card 3


A skin condition caused by over-activity of sebaceous glands


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Card 4


a reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm that enables the sperm to digest the zona pellucida


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Card 5


change that occurs in the electrical charge across the membrane of a neurone when it is simulated causing a nerve impulse


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