HSC - A1 Physical development across the life stages

A1 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE STAGES:
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ARE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS;
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GROWTH
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what is growth referred to as?
a physiological change.
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what does growth describe?
an increase in length or height, weight and dimensions.
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MEASURING HEIGHT
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1. what do infants reach by two years old?
half their adult height, they grow rapidly.
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2. what do adolescents experience?
growth spurts.
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what are growth spurts?
when height increases rapidly over a short period, during puberty.
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3. when is full height reached?
by the start of early adulthood.
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what are the age ranges for adolescents and adulthood?
9-18yrs + 19-45yrs
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THE FOUR PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH
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1. what is not constant?
growth rates.
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2. what grows at different rates?
different parts of the body.
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3. what varies?
growth rates between children.
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4. who's growth rate is faster on average male or female?
male, as men tend to be taller than women.
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LENGTH OR HEIGHT
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Length - what happens in the first two years?
infants length is measured lying down.
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Height - what happens from 2yrs old?
height is measured when standing.
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HEAD DIMENSIONS
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GROWTH
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when is head circumference measured?
at birth and at 6-8weeks
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why is the head circumference measured?
to identify any abnormalities in brain or skull growth.
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when is skull growth fastest?
first two years of life but continues into early adulthood.
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how is head circumference measured?
across the forehead, above ears and at midpoint of the back of the head.
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RECORDING GROWTH
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what is growth an indicator off?
children's health and well-being.
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what are measurements plotted on?
centile charts.
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what do centile lines represent?
the values of measurements from a large number of children to show 'norms' of growth in each age group.
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what do growth charts provide?
length or height, weight and head dimensions expected at particular age.
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why is comparing children's growth against norms important?
identify signs of ill-health and development problems.
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how do growth charts differ?
different for boys and girls as their expected rate of growth varies.
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DEVELOPMENT
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what does does development describe?
the acquisition of skills and abilities through the life stages.
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AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT
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1. what happens during physical development?
growth and other physical changes that happen to our body through life.
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2. what is intellectual/cognitive development?
the development of language, memory and thinking skills.
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3. what is emotional development?
the ability to cope with feelings about ourselves and towards others.
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4. what is social development?
the ability to form friendships and relationships, and to learn to be independent.
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DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES
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is everyone's rate of development the same?
no, individuals development may vary but it still follows the same sequence.
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what is each stage called?
milestones (developmental norm).
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LANGUAGE MILESTONES
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0-3 months
use gurgling and crying to cummincate.
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18 months
can say six to ten words.
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2 years
can link words together.
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3 years
can use simple sentences.
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8 years
can reason and explain
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IN INFANCY, THE INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPS GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
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what do gross motor skills allow children to control?
large muscles in their torso, arms, legs, hands and feet.
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INFANCY, 0-2 YEARS
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1. what do infants develop?
gross motor skills from the head down.
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2. what happens around six months?
infants gradually control muscles in their neck and back so they can roll, sit and crawl.
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3. what happens at 11-13 months?
muscles in legs develop = stand, cruise and walk.
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4. what happens at 2 years?
climb onto low furniture, propel a sit-on toy.
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USING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
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gross motor activity
crawling, skipping, jumping, scooting, kicking, pushing, pulling, co-ordinating
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EARLY CHILDHOOD, 3-8 YEARS
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Bike
3-4 years = can pedal and control a tricycle. 6 years = ride a bicycle.
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Low beam
3-4 years = can balance and walk along line. 5-8 years = balance on low beam.
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR SKILLS
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what are fine motor skills important for?
controlling and coordinating the movement of the small muscles in the fingers and hands.
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HOW FINE MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOP
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Newborn - what are they able to grasp?
adult's finger.
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Newborn - what will happen by 3 months?
hold a rattle for a short time.
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Newborn - what will happen by 6 months?
grasp a toy and pass it to his other hand.
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Newborn - at 12 months?
pick up small objects using PINCER GRASP.
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18 months - what can they do using palmar grasp?
build with small blocks, use a spoon and make marks with crayons.
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2 years - what can they do?
pull on shoes and control crayon to draw circles and dots.
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when do you develop the tripod grasp?
at 3-years old.
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3 years - what can they use?
fork and spoon, turn the pages of a book and button and unbutton clothing.
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what will they be able to do at 4 years?
thread small beads and colour in pictures.
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5 years - what muscles can they control?
muscles in fingers, manipulate the construction block.
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5 years - what coordination do they use?
hand-eye coordination, fit piece into correct place.
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ACTIVITIES THAT SUPPORT FINE MOTOR SKILLS
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what skills?
gripping, manipulation, hand-eye coordination.
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what is gripping?
having the strength in fingers and hands to hold an object firmly.
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what is manipulation?
skilful movement of objects using fingers and hands, turning, twisting and passing objects from one hand to another.
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what is hand-eye coordination?
control of eye movement at the same time as fingers and hand movement.
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what activity requires gripping?
holding a rattle, tricycle handle or spoon.
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what activity requires manipulation?
building with blocks, playing with a musical instrument.
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what activity requires hand-eye coordination?
writing, sewing or completing jigsaw puzzles.
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
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DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY AND PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS
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what are primary sexual characteristics?
processes related to sex organs, present at birth and mature when sex hormones are released.
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examples of primary sexual characteristics in females
menstruation begins, uterus and vagina grow, ovulation occurs.
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examples of primary sexual charactersitics in males
penis enlarges, prostate gland produces secretions, testes enlarge and produce sperm.
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what are secondary sexual characteristics?
not necessary for reproduction.
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when do they develop?
when sex hormones are released.
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examples of secondary sexual characterisitcs in females
growth of armpit and pubic hair, increased layers of fat under skin, breats enlarge, growth spurt, hips widen.
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examples of secondary sexual characteristics in males
larynx (voice box) grows causing the voice to deepen, growth spurt, increased muscle, growth of armpit and pubic hair, growth of facial hair.
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life stage is adolescence?
between 9 and 18 years old.
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what do adolescence's experience?
physical change called puberty.
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when does this take place?
girls = 11-13 years, boys = 13-15 years.
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what causes puberty to start?
a hormone in the brain sends a signal to the pituitary gland.
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what does this release?
hormones that stimulate the ovaries in girls and testes in boys = sex hormones.
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what happens during this life stage?
young person's height can increase rapidly over a short time (growth spurt).
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when does a growth spurt occur?
girls = 11-13 years, boys = 13-15 years.
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ROLE OF HORMONES IN SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
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IN BOYS
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what hormones i produced?
testosterone.
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where is it produced?
testes.
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what does it stimulate?
growth of penis and testes, pubic hair growth, development of muscle and lowering of voice.
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IN GIRLS
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what hormones are produced?
oestrogen and progesterone.
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what is it produced by?
ovaries.
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what does it stimulate?
growth of breasts and reproductive system help to regulate the menstrual cycle.
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD
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when do you reach maturation?
individuals reach physical maturity in early adulthood.
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examples of phsical maturity
motor coordination at peak, full height is reached, reaction time quickest, women are at most fertile can become pregnant and lactate, hand-eye coordination at peak, sexual characteristics fully developed, physical strength and stamina at peak.
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FERTILITY AND PERIMENOPAUSE
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what happens at beginning of life stage?
women are at their most fertile.
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what happens at around 40-45 years?
reach end of reproductive years, called the perimenopause.
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what decreases during perimenopause?
oestrogen levels
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what does this cause?
ovaries to stop producing an egg each month, causes physical and emotional symptoms.
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examples of physical and emotional symptoms
hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings, loss of libido and vaginal dryness.
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what happens to ovulation?
irregular.
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what happens to mensturation?
less frequent.
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
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what happens during menopause?
reduction in oestrogen causes physical and emotional symptoms.
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examples of physical and emotional symptoms
hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings, loss of libido, vagina dryness.
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what is the menopause?
natural physiological change.
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who is it experienced by?
women during middle adult life stage.
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when does it happen?
over several years with the gradual ending of menstruation.
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examples of signs of ageing
greying hair, loss of muscle tone, strength and stamina, increase or loss of weight, men begin to loose hair, women no longer fertile.
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THE ROLE OF SEX HORMONES IN FEMALES
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what is oestrogen?
plays most important role in female sexuality and regultes ovulation.
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what is progesterone?
necessary for the implantation of fertilised eggs in uterus, maintenance of pregnancy and sexual health.
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what happens to hormone levels?
reduce over time in the natural menopause.
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SYMPTOMS OF MENOPAUSE ARE THE RESULT OF HORMONAL CHANGES
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what does the reduction in oestrogen cause?
ovaries stop producing eggs, thinning and shrinkage of vagina.
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what does the reduction in oestrogen and progesterone cause?
gradually stops menstruation, impacts libido.
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affects due to the reduction of oestrogen on hypothalamus
(brain) regulates temperature, causing hot flushes and night sweats.
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how does reduction in oestrogen lead to mood swings?
oestrogen regulates nuerotransmitters that affect mood.
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other effects
affects health of hair, skin and nails.
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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN LATER ADULTHOOD
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what is the ageing process?
natural deterioration of the body.
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what declines due to ageing process?
strength , performance of organs, vision, hearing.
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what do you loose as a consequence of ageing process?
muscle, stamina.
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what do you have less of due to ageing process?
mobility in large muscles (gross motor skills) arms legs, mobility in small muscles (fine motor skills) fingers and hands, elasticity in skin.
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what do you have an increased likelihood of getting?
injuries aused by falls, susceptiblity to infection and disease.
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HEIGHT LOSS
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when is it usual to start lossing height?
in middle adulthood, continues into later life.
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how much height would they have lost by 80 years?
5cm.
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what is this caused by?
changes in posture and compression of the spinal discs and joints.
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INTELLECTUAL ABILITY
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what does ageing not always impact on?
cognitive ability.
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how can it negatively affect someone?
how individuals process information.
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examples of negative impact
memory, recall, speed of thinking.
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A2 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE STAGES
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what is intellectual development?
about how individuals organise ideas and make sense of the world around them.
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TYPES OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
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what do you need problem solving for?
work things out and make predictions about what might happen.
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what do you need moral development for?
reasoning and making choices about how to act towards self and others.
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what is language development essential for?
organise and express thoughts.
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what is memory essential for?
storing and recalling information.
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what is abstract thought and creative thinking essential for?
thinking and discussing things that cant be observed.
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STAGES OF LIFE
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when to intellectual skills develop?
develop differently at different stages of life.
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INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
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what is this the time for?
rapid intellectual development.
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what are neurons?
brain cells
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when are connections made?
in place by time children are 5 years old.
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what percentage of neurons are in place?
90%.
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EARLY ADULTHOOD
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what has happened by early adulthood?
individuals have gained knowledge, skills and experience.
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what do they use past experiences to do?
make judgements.
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what happens to thinking?
its logical and realistic.
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what are individuals able to think through?
problems and make decisions.
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LATER ADULTHOOD
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what happens to intelligence?
does not change but short-term memory and thinking speed may decline.
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INTELLECTUAL MILESTONES 0-8
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what happens from birth?
use all their senses to help understand the world around them.
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what happens at 3 years?
ask questions, count, recognise colours and sort objects.
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what happens at 5 years?
starting to read and write, draw in detail, can talk about the past and future.
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what happens at 8 years?
can think more deeply, reason, talk about abstract ideas and plan.
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STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - PIAGET
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what did Piaget believe?
children pass through distinct developmental stages in sequence.
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what did Piaget think?
children should be allowed to discover things for themselves through spontaneous play.
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DEVELOPMENT STAGES
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1. sensorimotor - age range
from birth to 2 years.
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what do infants learn?
about their environment.
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what do they develop?
early schemas (concepts) by using all their senses to physically explore the world.
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what thinking do infants use?
egocentric thinking.
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what is egocentric thinking?
only understand world from their perspective.
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2. pre-operational - age range
2 to 7 years.
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what do children learn to control?
their environment by using symbolic behaviour, representational words and drawing, pretend play.
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what are they not able to do?
think logically.
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what can you not use at 4 years and below?
abstract logical thinking because not mature enough.
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what can you use at 7?
concrete logical thinking.
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what does this enable you to do?
solve problems i.e. water stays same amount when poured into different shaped container.
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3. concrete operations - age range
7 to 11 years.
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what do children use to help them understand the world?
practical resources.
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example
counters for mathematics.
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how do they understand things they see?
they classify, categorise and use logic.
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4. formal operations - age range
11 to 18 years.
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what do young people have capacity for?
abstract thought, rational thought and problem solving.
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CRITICISMS OF PIAGET'S STAGES
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what do some critics believe Piaget underestimated?
children's development and that with support they can move more quickly to the next stage of development.
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PIAGET'S SCHEMATIC DEVELOPMENT THEORY
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what does this theory explain?
how children use their experiences to construct their understanding of the world around them.
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what is assimilation?
child constructs an understanding or concept (schema).
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example
child has developed a schema over sand.
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what is equilibriam?
the child's experience fits with their schema.
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example
child's experience in the nursery sandpit fits with their schema.
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what is disequilibrium?
a new experience disturbs the child's schema.
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example
water is added to the sandpit, the sand behaves differently, upsets the child's schema.
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what is accommodation?
child's understanding (schema) changes to take account of the new experience.
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example
child changes their schema to accommodate their new experience of sand. They develop a new schema.
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PIAGET - HOW CHILDREN THINK
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what did Piaget believe?
children think differently from adults.
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CONSERVATION
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why did he do tests?
to show the stage when children begin to reason and think logically.
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1. what is the child shown?
shown two identical glasses, with same amount of water.
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how old is the child? what life stage?
4, early childhood.
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2. what happens to the water?
poured from one glass into a tall, narrow beaker.
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3. what does the child believe?
that the tall, narrow beaker contains more water.
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what does conservation refer to?
children's understanding that the amount remains the same even when container's shape has changed.
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what did Piaget's test show about children under 7?
cannot conserve because they cannot think about more than one aspect of a situation at one time.
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what did Piaget's test show about operational stage at 7?
children can think logically so understand that the quantity of water stays the same when poured into a different shaped container.
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EGOCENTRISM
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what did Piaget believe?
until children are 7 years old only see things from their own perspective.
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what test did he use to prove theory of egocentrism?
Swiss mountain test.
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what did the test show?
children of 7 cannot describes the mountain from the other persons perspective.
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CRITICISMS OF PIAGET
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what did Piaget sometimes do?
underestimated children's rate of development.
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what can children do with support?
develop more advanced concepts.
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what can be given to children to move through stages faster?
given experiences = move through stages at a faster rate.
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what can some children do?
see things from the perspective of others before the age of 7.
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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
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what does language development involve?
communication through articulation (speech) and receptive speech (understanding).
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STAGES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
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INFANCY
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0-3 months
makes mouth movements in response to parent. Cries to ask for food or comfort.
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6-12 months
understands some words, such as 'byebye'. Makes sounds such as 'gaga'.
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18 months
can say between six and ten words. Can follow simple instructions.
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EARLY CHILDHOOD
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2-3 years
links words together, for example 'me car'. Vocabulary increasing to approximately 200 words at 2 years.
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3-5 years
uses simple sentences. Asks questions. May use incorrect forms of words, for example 'i good'.
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8 years
speaks in complex sentences. Can reason and explain.
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ADOLESCENCE
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9-19 years
developing vocabulary. Uses language to explore abstract ideas.
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LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD)
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what did Noam Chomsky propose?
the LAD is the hypothetical part of the human mind.
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what does LAD allow infants to do?
acquire and produce language.
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WHAT DID HE SUGGEST?
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what are all humans born with?
a structure in the brain that enables them to acquire language.
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what happens in the first years of life?
critical period for first language development.
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what do we all follow?
same pattern of language development.
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what do we have an innate understanding of?
the structure of language (universal grammar) the basis for all languages.
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CRITICISMS OF CHOMSKY
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1. what does he lack?
scientific evidence of innate understanding of structure of language.
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2. what is the rate of language development affected by?
the degree of interactions with others.
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3. what does it not take into account?
a language acquisition support system is required.
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4. what did Chomsky put emphasis on?
grammar in sentence development rather than meanings.
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A3 EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE STAGES
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THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT
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what is attachment?
the emotional bond that is formed between infants and young children and their main caregiver.
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BOWLBY'S THEORY OF ATTACHMENT
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INFANTS ARE BIOLOGICALLY PRE-PROGRAMMED TO FROM ATTACHMENTS
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- what did he observe?
children experience separation anxiety.
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- what do infants form in early months?
one primary attachment.
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- why is infancy a critical period?
for developing attachments.
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- what did he begin to consider?
a child's relationship with their mother.
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- what is essential?
attachment to primary caregiver.
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- what has a negative impact on development?
disruption to attachment.
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- what is primary caregiver a model for?
future attachments.
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- what is is Bowlby's theory linked to?
importance of social, emotional and cognitive development.
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- what did he believe?
children biologically pre-programmed to form attachments.
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SCHAFFER AND EMERSON'S STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
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birth - 3 months
responds to any caregiver.
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4-7 months
shows preference to primary caregiver but accepts from others.
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7-9 months
prefers/seeks comfort from primary caregiver: unhappy when separated and shows fear of strangers.
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10 months +
begins to develop attachments with others who respond to them.
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18 months
most infants have formed multiple attachments.
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AINSWORTH'S STRANGE SITUATION CLASSIFICATION
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how did Mary Ainsworth classify attachments?
into three main types.
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what where they based on?
a study of children's reactions when parted from a parent.
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what are the types of attachments?
secure, insecure/avoidant, insecure/resistant
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secure parenting style
in tune with the child and their emotions.
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insecure/avoidant parenting style
unavailable to child/rejects them.
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insecure/resistant parenting style
inconsistent in meeting the child'd needs.
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secure infants' behaviour - what will they show?
distress when primary caregiver leaves, and greets them when they return, seeks comfort from caregiver when they upset, happy with strangers when caregiver is present.
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insecure/avoidant infants behaviour - what do they not show?
distress when primary caregiver leaves, continues to explore the environment may go to a stranger for comfort.
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insecure/resistant - what do they show?
distress when primary caregiver leaves but resists contact on their return; shows anciety and insecurity.
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Disrupted attachment may cause
anxiety, difficulty in forming relationships, depressive disorders, delinquency, learning disorders.
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EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT - SELF-CONCEPT
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what is self-concept?
an individuals evaluation of their own self-worth.
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SELF-IMAGE, SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM
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what is self-image?
how individuals view themselves, influenced by how they are perceived by others.
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example of self-image
slim person might perceive themselves as overweight.
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what is self-concept?
combination of self-image and self-esteem.
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what is self-esteem?
how individuals value and feel about the knowledge they have of themselves.
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example of self-concept
one might person might think, 'i can't do it, i'm not good enough, people don't like me'. Another erson might think, 'i can, i'm special, i'm clever, friends like me'.
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FACTORS THAT MAY IMPACT ON SELF-IMAGE AND SELF-ESTEEM
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- family and culture
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- achievement e.g. school and work.
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life experiences
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life circumstances e.g. employment
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sexual orientation
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physical development/health
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the attitudes of others
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emotional dvelopment including early attachment
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POSITIVE SELF-IMAGE
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+ feels happy about personal appearance and abilites.
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+ receives good feedback from others about appearance and abilties.
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+ compares self favourably with others.
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NEGATIVE SELF-IMAGE
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- feels unattractive or less intelligent than others.
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- receives negative comments from others about appearance or abilities.
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- compares self negatively against 'perfect' images in magazines/on TV.
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POSITIVE HIGH SELF-ESTEEM
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+ feels confident
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+ willing to try and new things
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+ copes well under pressure
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NEGATIVE SELF-ESTEEM
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- feels worthless
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- less likely to try new things
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- less likely to cope well in new or difficult situations
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what may happen to a person self-esteem?
its not constant and may change from time to time depending on an individual's circumstance.
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A4 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE STAGES
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STAGES OF PLAY
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what are stages of play closely linked to?
stages of socail development and language.
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PLAY IN INFANCY AND EALRY CHILDHOOD
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- all children play
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when do infants start to play?
when they are just a few months old.
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what does play promote?
physical, intellectual, emotional and social development.
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VARYING STAGES OF PLAY
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stages of play may vary between children.
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what are stages influenced by?
children's language and intellectual development.
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STAGES OF PLAY IN INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
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0-2 - what is solo play?
infant is engrossed in own play.
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what toys are used in solo play?
rattles, shakers and balls.
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what are they aware off?
other infants are present but do not attempt to play with them.
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2-3 years - what is parallel play?
children are playing next to each other but are involved in own play.
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what might they do?
copy each other bu they do not interact.
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3 years + - what is co-operative play?
children are sharing, talking and playing together.
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what do they share?
ideas and resources in the same activity.
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how do they behave?
interact and agree roles to develop their play towards a shared goal.
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LANGUAGE AND PLAY
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what must you refer to ?
stages of language development and LAD.
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why is play important?
children to develop their vocabulary.
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what do children need language to be able to do?
communicate and negotiate during co-operative play.
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SYMBOLS AND PLAY
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what must you refer to?
Piaget's stages.
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what do infants use all senses to find?
find out about the world around them (heuristic play).
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how do children in the pre-operational stage learn best?
through exploratory play.
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what does the provision of natural materials indoors and outdoors encourage?
curiosity and exploratory learning.
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FRIENDSHIPS AND RELATIONSHIPS
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why are friendships and relationships important?
essential fro healthy and human development.
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BUILDING FRIENDSHIPS
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what does building friendships involve?
learning to value others and developing skills to interact with individuals and groups.
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CLOSE FRIENDSHIPS
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when do they form?
around 3 years, children start to develop special friendships.
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how does this effect individuals?
feel secure and confident.
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what does it promote?
independence and self-esteem.
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FRIENDSHIPS WITH A WIDER GROUP OF FRIENDS
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what happens when children widen their friendship circle?
become more confident and independent.
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what are adolescents greatly influenced by?
views of their friends, which may affect their self-image.
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how do wider friendship groups affect adulthood?
important for positive and emotional and social development.
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RELATIONSHIP BREAKDOWNS
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what affects can relationship breakdowns have on someone?
negative impact on social and emotional development and health.
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DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS
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what do relationships involve?
developing skills to interact with others in different situations.
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RELATIONSHIPS
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FORMAL RELATIONSHIPS
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who do they develop between?
non-related individuals such as colleagues or teacher and pupil.
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why are positive formal relationships important?
for good self-esteem and self-image.
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INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS
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when does it begin?
in adolescence and continue, and new ones form throughout life.
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what do close intimate relationships result in?
greater contentment, emotional security and positive self-image.
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INFORMAL RELATIONSHIPS
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who are they built between?
individuals and family or significant people.
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when do they start with attachments?
infancy.
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what do strong informal relationships promote?
contentment and the confidence to deal with life events.
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what do they help to build?
other informal, formal and intimate relationships throughout life.
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HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS
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what do they result in?
acceptance, trust, compromise, respect, responsibility, honesty.
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UNHEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS
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what do they result in?
stress, isolation, distrust, blame, low self-esteem, insecurity.
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SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE
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what does independence involve doing?
doing things for oneself and making decisions without relying others.
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what is it linked to?
social and emotional development.
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDEPENDENCE THROUGH THE LIFE STAGES
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INFANCY
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who do they depend on?
others for care.
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how will they play?
alone but likes a familiar adult close by.
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EARLY CHILDHOOD
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what do they develop?
necessary skills to become more independent in personal care.
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what do they develop?
likes and dislikes and can make limited decisions.
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ADOLESCENCE
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what do they enjoy?
more freedom, make independent decisions, emotions may affect this ability.
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what do they responsibility over?
own actions but influenced by others.
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EARLY ADULTHOOD
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are they independent?
may live with parents but is independent.
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do they make own decisions?
yes, about personal life and career.
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what is it a time for?
relationships, marriage and starting a family.
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MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
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what do they become?
increasingly independent.
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what do they have increased?
freedom with life changes, e.g. dependent children leave home; retirement.
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LATER ADULTHOOD
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what do they continue to do?
make own decisions.
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what may affect them?
financial constraints if relying on state pension.
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what changes?
mental and physical capacity may gradually reduce ability to make own decisions and care for self.
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LEARN OF INDEPENDENCE FOLLOW A PATTERN BUT VARY BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS
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what is independence influenced by?
stage of emotional development, stage of social development, physical disability, health and culture.
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what does peer pressure describe?
a person or group influencing an individual to change their behavior, values or beliefs so they conform to, and become socially accepted by, a peer group.
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what my adolescents do?
may pressurise others to follow their lead on school rules, home rules and lifestyle.
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NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE BEHAVIOURS
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examples of negative behaviors due to peer pressure
smoking, using alcohol and drugs, truancy, bullying, vandalising, stealing, disrespect.
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examples of positive behaviors due to peer pressure
taking part in sport, studying, befriending, respecting others, learning a new skill, eating healthy foods, keeping safe if taking part in sex.
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B FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
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B1 THE NATURE/NURTURE DEBATE RELATED TO FACTORS
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MATURATION THEORY
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what does gesell's theory help to explain?
how biological maturation (process of maturing) is related to overall development.
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GESELL'S MATURATION THEORY
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WHAT IS HIS THEORY BASED ON?
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what is genetically determined?
development is genetically determined from birth - a biological process.
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what do children follow?
same orderly sequence in their development.
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what happens to the pace of development?
may vary depending on physical and intellectual development.
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who was gesell?
a psychologist, a pioneer in child development and remains influential in our understanding of child development.
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what was he the first person to do?
use observation of children to understand their development.
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what did he observe?
behaviors of many children.
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what did he determine?
averages or 'norms' which he called milestones of development.
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what his milestones describe?
children's physical; social and emotional development.
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POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VIEWS OF GESELL'S THEORY
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POSITIVE
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what did he determine?
typical norms of development that are still used today.
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what did he use in his observations?
advanced methodology in observations of behavior of large numbers of children.
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NEGATIVES
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what did he not consider?
the influence of individual or cultural differences in children.
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what did he believe?
that the 'norms' of development he described were desirable.
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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
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what does social learning theory suggest?
the way children behave is an interaction between personal and enviromental factors.
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BANDURA'S THEORY
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what is the soical learning theory based on?
a belief that learning happens through observing, imitating and modelling the bevaiours of others.
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THE FOUR PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL LEARNING
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1. Attention - when does learning take place?
when a child focuses on their attention on a person who models the beaviour.
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1. Attention - what are children more likely to do?
imitate the behaviour of someone they identify with or admire.
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2. Retention - what is it?
what the child has observed is retained in their memory to be used when an opportunity occurs.
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3. Reproduction - what happen's to what has been learnt?
reproduced or imitated.
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3. Reproduction - where might it be rehearsed?
in the child's mind first and then imitated later when there is an opportunity.
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4. Motivation - what is it?
children feel motivated because they anticipate intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.
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4. Motivation - what will hildren be motivated to do?
repeat or stop the bevaiour, depending on intrinsic or extrinsic reinforcement.
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REINFORCEMENT
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what is reinforcement?
behavior may be repeated or resisted - may be positive or negative.
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Positive - what is it?
the behavior is repeated because of the personal satisfaction (intrinsic reinforcement) or rewards (extrinsic reinforcement).
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Negative - what is it?
the behavior is not repeated to avoid an adverse experience such as lack of satisfaction or being told off.
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VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT
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why may children feel motivated?
because they see the person or 'model' they observe is getting satisfaction or positive feedback.
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why may children resist imitating the action?
because the model receives negative feedback from their action.
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BOBO DOLL EXPERIMENT
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what were children shown?
adults being aggressive or non-aggressive towards the Bobo doll.
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what happened to the adults?
aggressive adults were either rewarded, reprimanded or had no consequence for their behavior.
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WHAT WAS THE THEORY DESIGNED TO SHOW?
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what will children copy?
the aggressive behavior of another person.
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what impacted on the behavior of the child?
outcome for the adult impacted on the likelihood of children copying the behavior.
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THE RESULT
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how did children learn the aggressive behavior?
through observation.
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what were children more likely to imitate?
an adult who was rewarded for aggressive behavior than one who was reprimanded.
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NATURE VS NURTURE
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what is it widely accepted in?
they play a role in human development.
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NATURE VS NURTURE DEBATE
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NATURE (NATIVISM)
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what is it?
the influence of innate/inherited features on development.
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what is it based on?
assumption that children are genetically pre-programmed.
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what have they inherited from parents?
skills, abilities, behaviors
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NATURE AND NURTURE
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what did Piaget accept?
children develop in a predestined way (stages of cognitive devlopment).
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what did Piaget believe?
experiences help them to develop new concepts.
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NURTURE (EPIRICISM OR BEHAVIOURISM)
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what is it?
the influence of the environment and nurturing.
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what assumption is it based on?
characteristics are acquired and can be shaped through experiences.
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GENETIC PREDISPOSITION
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how can genetic predispositoin be triggered?
their environment and life experiences (nurture).
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STRESS-DIATHESIS MODEL
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what does it explain?
both nurture and nurture play a part in development pf psychological disorders.
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Nature diathesis - what is it?
a predisposition or vulnerability to mental disorders due to abnormality of the brain or neurotransitters.
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Nurture stresses - what is it?
traumatic events in a person's life, e.g. relationships, abuse, culture.
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B2 GENETIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT DEVELOPMENT
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what can genetic factors affect?
physical growth, development, health and appearance.
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GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO CONDITIONS
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what are genes?
sets of instructions to the cells that determine growth and development.
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what do individuals inherit?
23 pairs (one from each parent) of chromosomes, which contain genes.
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what can arise from defective inherited genes?
health conditions.
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DOMINANT GENES
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what can defective gene pass from?
one parent or both.
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what does the likelihood of developing conditions depend on?
whether the defective gene is recessive or diminant.
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can a dominant gene be passed on by one parent for child to develop condition?
yes.
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examples
brittle bone disease = causes bones to break easily. huntington's disease = causes involtuntary movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders.
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RECESSIVE GENES
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what must they both be passed from?
from both parents.
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conditons you can develop
cystic fibrosis = build-up of thick sticky mucous can damage lungs. PKU = causes intellectual disability and developmental delay.
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CONDITIONS CAUSED BY AN ABNORMALITY IN AN INDIVIDUAL'S CHROMOSOMES
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what is down syndrome?
extra copy of a chromosome?
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what can it cause?
characteristics facial features, growth delay and intellectual disability.
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what is klinefelter syndrome?
boys have an extra X chromosome.
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what can it cause?
problems during, or a delay in puberty.
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what is colour blindness?
mutations in the X chromosome, more common in males.
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what can it cause?
difficult to distinguish colours.
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GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASE
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what does this mean?
increased likelihood of developing a disease becase of an individuals genetic makeup.
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what can it lead to?
cancer, high blood cholesterol, diabetes.
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OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING DISEASE
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what can disease be increased or reduced by?
enviromental factors, lifestyle, life events, availability of preventative treatment.
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BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
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what are they?
factors that affect the development of a living organism.
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BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
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what can affect a child's health and development?
mother's lifestyle during pregnancy.
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what poor lifstyle choices can affect an unborn child?
poor diet, drug use, alcohol use and smoking.
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EFFECTS ON DEVELOPING CHILD
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example of effects of poor lifestyle choices in pregnancy
low birth weight, premature birth, long-term health problems, learning disabilities, congenital defects (defects on the developing foetus).
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MATERNAL INFECTIONS
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what can be passed to the baby in the womb?
infections such as rubella or cytomegalvirus.
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what can it cause?
health problems, congenital defects, still birth, miscarriage.
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FOETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
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what is this caused by?
exposure to alcohol in the womb.
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examples of symptoms
small head circumference, neurological problems, abnormal growth, developmental delay, facial abnormalities.
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CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
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what are these?
defects or anomalies in the developing foetus.
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when might they be detected?
before birth, during birth or in later life?
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FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
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Genetics
- such as down syndrome.
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Nutritional
- deficiency in folate, increases risk of nueral tube defect.
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Enviromental
- maternal exposure to pesticides, chemicals, radiatio, alcohol or tobacco = abnormal growth.
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Infections
- rubella, resulting in deafness and health problems.
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B3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT DEVELOPMENT
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what factors affect humn growth and development?
inherited, environmental, social, economic, biological, life events.
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ARE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS;

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Card 3

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GROWTH

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Card 4

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what is growth referred to as?

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Card 5

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what does growth describe?

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