How did relations with foreign powers change and how was the succession secured under Henry VII?

Evidence that relations with France were initially friendly
1485 Truce with France
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Italian Wars
Italy was divided between states which fought for power, French King Charles VIII invaded Italy in 1494 to exploit their domestic situation - French did not want war with England but were interested in the Italian peninsula
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France in 1485
Much smaller country - Brittany virtually independent (Henry depended on Brittany) - Calais controlled by England (only remnant of the Hundred Year's war)
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When did France move to absorb Brittany?
Between 1488 and 1492
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Why did Henry not want to annoy France by getting involved in the annexation of Brittany?
Pretenders to the throne were active and England lacked funds
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What would be the consequences of France gaining control of Brittany?
The south coast of England would be weakened
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What pretender did the French support during the Breton crisis?
Perkin Warbeck
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Treaty of Etaples 1942
French king not to support England's enemies, English friendship with France intact, military intervention in Breton Crisis was brief, Brittany still French satellite, Henry's army left France in return for a payment which would offset cost of war
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How much did the French pay Henry so that his troops would leave France in the Treaty of Etaples 1942?
745,000 crowns - Rate of 50,000 crowns per year - 5% of kings annual income
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What was the Breton Crisis caused by?
France moved to absorb Brittany in 1942
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Breton Crisis
Opened negotiations with France but at the same time secretly allowed English troops to cross to Brittany
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How much did Parliament summon to finance the Breton Crisis?
£100,000 + 3,000-6,000 men - they crossed the channel in April 1489
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When Henry sent his larger force to Brittany, how many men did this involve?
12,000
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How did the Treaty of Medina del Campo assist England in the Breton Crisis?
Henry approached the Netherlands, German states and Pope for assistance
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When did Henry VII pledge to marry Elizabeth?
25th December 1483
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When did Henry VII marry Elizabeth?
18th January 1486 at Westminster
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How did Henry benefit from pledging to marry Elizabeth?
Received the homage of Edward IV's supporters thus helping him overthrow Richard
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Consequences of the marriage between Henry and Elizabeth of York?
Gave Henry's children a strong claim to the throne, Unified houses of York and Lancaster-Dealt with Yorkist claimants, Ensured stability of his rule-claimed the throne by right of conquest
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Titulus Regius
Henry had parliament repeal Titulus Regius which declared Edward IV's marriage and children illegitimate - Elizabeth now legitimate
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Elizabeth of York's claim to the throne
Was eldest daughter of Edward IV - therefore had a strong claim
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When was Henry VII crowned?
30th October 1485 - before marriage
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When was Elizabeth of York crowned Queen of England?
25th November 1487
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Why did Elizabeth of York not exercise much political influence?
Henry had no intention of sharing power and his mother-in-law Lady Margaret Beaufort had a lot more influence
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How many children did Elizabeth of York and King Henry VII have?
They had 8 children - of which only 4 survived childbirth
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The 4 children of Elizabeth of York and King Henry VII that survived childbirth?
Arthur Prince of Wales (20 Sep 1486-2 April 1502), Margaret Queen of Scotland (28 Nov 1489-18 Oct 1541), Henry VIII King of England (28 Jun 1491- 28 Jan 1547), Mary Queen of France (18th March 1496-25 Jun 1533)
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Arthur Prince of Wales (20 Sep 1486-2 April 1502)
First child that survived childbirth of Elizabeth and Henry - Married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella at the age of 16 (14 Nov 1501) - heir to the throne but dies before Henry VII
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Margaret Queen of Scotland (28 Nov 1489-18 Oct 1541)
Second child that survived childbirth of Elizabeth and Henry - Married James IV of Scotland (1503-1513) - James V of Scotland - Mary Queen of Scots
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Henry VIII King of England (28 Jun 1491- 28 Jan 1547)
Third child that survived childbirth of Elizabeth and Henry - Proclaimed king of England 21st April 1509 - continued Tudor legacy - Marries Catherine of Aragon (1509-1533)
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Mary Queen of France (18th March 1496-25 Jun 1533)
Fourth child that survived childbirth of Elizabeth and Henry - Betrothed to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor but called of in 1513, Marries King Louis XII of France 1514 at the age of 18
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1486 Truce with England
James III death two years later ruined truce, James accepted Henry as King-If refused there could be problems in the north where Yorkists still had support
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How did James III die and when?
Killed by Scottish rebels in 1488 who wanted closer relations with England whereas James wanted seperation
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Who was James III of Scotland succeeded by?
His 15 year old son James IV - Nobles governed on behalf were hostile - harboured Warbeck between 1495-1497
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What was the serious internal conflict in Scotland with the Lords of the Isles?
The ancient feud of the western Celts with the supremacy of the crown
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Truce of Ayton 1497
Led to the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in 1502 - which was meant to end the two hundred years war, did lead to marriage between Henry's eldest Margaret and James IV in 1503 - diplomacy averted war
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How much did Henry VII raise for wars with Scotland?
Parliament - £120,000 and £50,000 from loans
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Was James IV an effective King of Scotland?
For 20 years Scotland advanced under his rule and became prominent in European politics, Secured not only the submission but the loyalty of the chieftains in the west, Absence of any great contests with baronial factions which predecessors dealt with
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Evidence that there was strained relations between Scotland and England
Frequent border raids and piratical encounters at sea
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When did Phillip of Burgundy die and who took this as an opportunity to extend their power?
Phillip of Burgundy died in 1506 - Ferdinand declared himself kings of Castile
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Why did relations with Spain take a major downturn in Feb 1503?
Queen Elizabeth and Isabella died - Henry wanted a new wife to ensure the Tudors had a surviving male heir, Ferdinand also wanted a new wife - options limited - two former allies were on course to becoming major rivals
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Consequences of the death of Isabella of Castile?
Spanish marriage between Henry and Catherine less of a possibility
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When did Prince Arthur die and what were the consequences of this?
April 1502 - gravely upset Henry's plans for succession - Ferdinand and Isabella gave their blessing or prince Henry to marry Catherine
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1489 Trade Act
Limited export of English wool and made it illegal for foreigners to buy wool and make into cloth - At the end of reign export of raw wool was 30% lower than it had been in 1485
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Intercursus Magnus
English merchants to trade freely with Burgundy except Flanders, By 1509 England was exporting more than half the cloth in Europe, 60% more cloth was being exported to Europe in 1509
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Treaty of Medina del Campo 1489
England and Spain work together to defend their lands-Equal trading rights, Fixed custom duties, Arrangements made for marriage of Prince Arthur to Catherine - Henry regarded friendship with Spain as a vital counter-balance to French power
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What was Catherine's dowry she brought to England when she married Arthur?
100,000 crowns
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Who dominated trade in the Mediterranean?
Venice
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Causes of the 1490 treaty with Venice?
Henry persuaded merchants to trade in the Mediterranean - Venice responded by putting heavy tariffs
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1490 treaty with Venice?
Allowed English wool to be imported into Florence - Venetian gov lifted import duties on goods - Henry could now trade with the wealthiest state in the Mediterranean
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League of Cambrai 1508
France+Spain+Pope+Netherlands vs Venice - England was not apart of it but members stated they would not threaten England's interests abroad - distracted major powers in Europe away from England
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When did Henry renew treaty with Maximilian?
Jan 1487
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The Holy League
England joined in 1496 - formed to force France out of northern Italy - only signed on the condition that England did not have to go to war with France - Same time he signed a commercial treaty with France
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Who did Ferdinand marry after Isabella?
Married the niece of Louis XII of France in Oct 1505
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Consequences of Ferdinand marrying the niece of Louis XII?
The Spanish/French alliance made England vulnerable
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What pushed Ferdinand into remarrying?
Henry developing closer ties with Burgundy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Italy was divided between states which fought for power, French King Charles VIII invaded Italy in 1494 to exploit their domestic situation - French did not want war with England but were interested in the Italian peninsula

Back

Italian Wars

Card 3

Front

Much smaller country - Brittany virtually independent (Henry depended on Brittany) - Calais controlled by England (only remnant of the Hundred Year's war)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Between 1488 and 1492

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pretenders to the throne were active and England lacked funds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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