History: American West (Plains Indians)

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Why were the plains so inhospitable to the settlers? 5 POINTS
Harsh, extreme weather conditions, lack of timber for building, lack of drinking water, disease spread easily, strong winds.
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Name three types of Plains Indian tribes.
Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, Lakota Nakota and Dakota Sioux, Wichita.
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How many buffalo skins were used to make the tipi's?
10-20 skins.
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What was used to make the frame of the tipi?
Wooden frame, arranged in a circle.
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Who's responsibility was it to take care of the tipi?
The women of the family.
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What type of lifestyle did the Plains Indians live?
Nomadic lifestyle (did not settle in one place).
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How quickly could the tipi be taken down or put up?
10 minutes.
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What were the men of the tribe responsible for?
Men were responsible for hunting, looking after the horses, and protecting the band.
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How many families were usually in one band?
10-15 families. The combined bands made up the tribe.
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What were the women responsible for?
Women were responsible for the tipi, preparing food, fetching water and making clothes and other items.
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How were women and children seen in Plains Indians society?
Highly valued, women as bearers of children and children as the future of the band.
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How would young men and women in Plains Indians society begin courtship?
Young men would impress women with their bravery or a gift of horses or buffalo skins.
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Where did newly married couples live?
With the wife's family, in their tipi.
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How were children educated?
They were taught the skills that they needed to survive on the plains.
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What were young boys taught?
How to hunt.
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What were young girls taught?
How to maintain the tipi.
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What role did older people have in the band?
Gave advice and passed on the history of the people. Also involved in helping to bring up the children.
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What was the buffalo used for by the Indians?
Main source of food, clothing and shelter.
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What was performed before the hunt?
The buffalo dance.
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What happened during the buffalo dance?
Men dressed in buffalo skins and imitated them, as a call to the spirit world.
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What were the two ways of hunting buffalo?
On horseback or herding them into narrow spaces.
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Why did the hunts have to be highly organised?
To stop the buffalo leaving the area.
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How many hunts were needed each year to supply enough food and shelter for the band?
Two or three hunts.
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What did wars between Indian tribes consist of?
A series of short raids, rather than long term battles.
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What did the raids consist of?
Stealing horses or destroying enemies.
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Why did these "wars" occur?
Rivalry over hunting or living spaces.
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When would the raids take place?
At night, in the summer months.
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Who did the Sioux see as their main enemies?
Pawnee and Crow.
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Why were the raids important for young men?
Gave to men the chance to show their bravery, and gain wealth and standing within the group.
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Why was it not considered heroic to die in battle?
It would leave a woman, children and family behind.
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Why were scalps taken from enemies?
Seen as trophies, and prevented the enemy from getting to the "afterlife".
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In what were most men lost: Hunting or fighting?
Hunting.
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Who was Wakan Tanka?
The great spirit.
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Why is Wakan Tanka significant?
Indians believed that he created the world and everything in it.
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Why were circles important to the Indians?
Circle of life, circle of seasons, villages set in circles, tipi was circular.
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What was the circle of life?
The belief that people came from the earth, and would return to it.
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Why did the Indians have difficulty in understanding the settlers' buying and selling land?
They believed that the land contained the spirits of their dead ancestors- therefore nobody could own it.
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What were visions for?
They were used as a way to see into the spirit world.
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How did young men and women get their names?
Through their visions.
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When could the women contact the spirit world?
During menstruation.
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What did the medicine man of the tribe do?
Healed and cured diseases.
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How did the Indians see disease?
Saw it as not just physical, but also spiritual.
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What did the Shaman/Medicine Man use to create potions?
Herbs and plants from the plains. They knew the properties of over 2000 plants.
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How were the Shaman/ Medicine Men paid for their work?
Fee paid in ponies.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name three types of Plains Indian tribes.

Back

Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, Lakota Nakota and Dakota Sioux, Wichita.

Card 3

Front

How many buffalo skins were used to make the tipi's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was used to make the frame of the tipi?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who's responsibility was it to take care of the tipi?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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