Hazards in a geographical context

  • Created by: 12WrighH
  • Created on: 14-03-18 12:44
What is a Hazard?
A hazard is the threat of substantial loss of life, substantial impact upon life or damage to property that can be cause by an event (human- Explosions, nuclear incidents etc..., natural- Earthquakes,etc..)
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What do impacts of natural hazards depend on?
Location, Time, Magnitude
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What are the three main types of Hazard?
Geophysical, Atmosphere, Hydrological
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What type of hazard is a Geophysical hazard?
One that is driven by the Earth's own internal energy sources, for example, plate tectonics, volcanoes, seismic activity etc..
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What type of hazard is a Atmospheric hazard?
One driven by processes at work in the atmosphere, for example, tropical storms, droughts, etc...
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What type of hazard is a Hydrological one?
One driven by water bodies, mainly the oceans, for example, floods, storm surges, tsunamis etc...
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Name the two types of impacts
Primary and Secondary
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What is a Primary Impact?
Those that have immediate effect on the affected area, such as destruction of infrastructure and buildings.
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What is a Secondary Impact?
Ones that happen after the disaster has occurred, such as disease, economic recession and contamination of water supplies
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What is the perception of a hazard affected by?
The direct experience, as well as how long term the impact of the experience has been
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It is the presence of what that makes a natural event become a hazard?
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What can increase the threat of a hazard?
Population expansion, demand for land
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What are the advantages of living with the threat of hazards?
Fertile soils on floods plains and volcano sides
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Why do HICs experience less of long-term damage?
There is enough wealth and potential for redevelopment
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Why do LICs experience more long-term damage?
They rely on support and aid, which means they cannot afford to rebuild themselves
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What is the natural human response to a hazard?
To reduce risk to life and equity
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What is human response to hazards locally?
Saving possessions and safeguarding property
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What is human response to hazards globally?
Coordinating rescue and humanitarian aid
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What is ADAM?
Automatic Disaster Analysis and Mapping System
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What does ADAM do?
It's a database that pools information from the US geological survey, World bank and World Food programme
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Why is ADAM useful?
It allows immediate access to information about the scale of the disaster, what supplies are available and local infrastructure
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What is Fatalism?
The belief that all events are predetermined and therefore inevitable.
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Explain Fatalism in regards to natural disasters
Fatalism means that we should allow natural disasters to happen as they all occur eventually, in the case of wildfires, sometimes its beneficial to let them take their course
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How has prediction of natural hazards improved?
Remote sensing, seismic monitoring has been used, advances in communications means information can be shared and analysed quickly.
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What is the most realistic option for people in regards to natural hazards?
That we accept that natural events are inevitable and therefore we can adapt to them to keep losses at a minimum, this is cost-effective
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What are the four key processes in the Hazard Management Cycle?
Preparedness, Response, Recovery and Mitigation
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What is Preparedness?
This entails knowing what to do in the case of a natural disaster to speed up the recovery process, large scale events can rarely be prevented.
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What is Response?
The speed of the response depends on the effectiveness of the emergency plan , immediate responses focus on saving lives.
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What is Recovery?
This is restoring the affected areas to something close to normality, including long and short-term plans.
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What is Mitigation?
Actions aimed at reducing the severity of an event to reduce it's impacts. This involves direct intervention, it can also come in the form of support.
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What three phases does the Park Model of Human Responses to hazards include?
Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
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What is Relief Phase in the Park Model?
The immediate local and possibly global response in the form of aid, expertise and search and rescue.
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What is Rehabilitation Phase in the Park Model?
A longer phase lasting weeks or months, when services and infrastructure is restored, possibly temporarily, to allow the reconstruction phase to happen.
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What is the Reconstruction Phase in the Park Model?
Restoring to the same or better quality of life as before the event took place. This can include mitigation against future events.
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What does the type of disruption depend on?
Type of Hazard, Intensity or Magnitude, Immediate environment, Infrastructure and Time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do impacts of natural hazards depend on?


Location, Time, Magnitude

Card 3


What are the three main types of Hazard?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What type of hazard is a Geophysical hazard?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What type of hazard is a Atmospheric hazard?


Preview of the front of card 5
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