Haemoglobin

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The molecule
Globular protein made in the bone marrow. Quaternary structure (4 polypeptide chains), each polypeptide chain is combined with a haem group and at the center there is a ferrous ion which combines with the oxygen molecule. A total of 4 oxygen molecule
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Function
Readily dissociated from oxygen in respiring tissues. Readily associated with oxygen at a gas exchange surface such as the alveolar.
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Affinities
If haemoglobin has a low affinity for oxygen is means oxygen is released more readily but takes up oxygen less easily. Whereas if it has a high affinity for oxygen it combines more easily with oxygen but releases it less readily.
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Partial Pressure
PO2 is a measure of oxygen concentration, the higher the partial pressure the more concentrated the red blood cells are and a greater amount of oxygen is dissolved within them. Oxygen loads onto haemoglobin when there is a high partial pressure of ox
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Carbon Dioxide Concentration Effects
When carbon dioxide is present the affinity for oxygen is reduced and haemoglobin releases oxygen more readily (Bohr Effect). When the partial pressure of oxygen is high (respiring cells) the dissociation curve shifts down and oxygen unloads at a fa.
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Carbon Dioxide Effect at a Gas-Exchange Surface
The level of carbon dioxide is low as it diffuses across the exchange surface ad is expelled, therefore the the affinity for oxygen is increased also there is a high concentration of oxygen therefore oxygen is readily loaded by haemoglobin and carbo
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Carbon Dioxide Effect at Respiring Tissues
The level of carbon dioxide is higher as CO2 is a waste product of respiration, therefore the affinity for oxygen is reduced and there is a low concentration of oxygen in the muscles so oxygen is readily released and unloaded into the muscle cells fr
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Process
The more active a tissue is the more oxygen is unloaded, the carbon dioxide at a gas-exchange surface is constant being removed increase the pH changing the shape of the haemoglobin molecule into one that loads oxygen readily increasing its affinity
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Readily dissociated from oxygen in respiring tissues. Readily associated with oxygen at a gas exchange surface such as the alveolar.

Back

Function

Card 3

Front

If haemoglobin has a low affinity for oxygen is means oxygen is released more readily but takes up oxygen less easily. Whereas if it has a high affinity for oxygen it combines more easily with oxygen but releases it less readily.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

PO2 is a measure of oxygen concentration, the higher the partial pressure the more concentrated the red blood cells are and a greater amount of oxygen is dissolved within them. Oxygen loads onto haemoglobin when there is a high partial pressure of ox

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When carbon dioxide is present the affinity for oxygen is reduced and haemoglobin releases oxygen more readily (Bohr Effect). When the partial pressure of oxygen is high (respiring cells) the dissociation curve shifts down and oxygen unloads at a fa.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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