Haemoglobin and The Bohr Effect

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  • Haemoglobin
    • Haemoglobin is made up of:
      • 4 globular proteins (amino groups)
      • 1 iron ion (prosthetic group)
    • Haemoglobin is the molecule that allows erythrocytes to carry respiratory gases (especially oxygen)
    • It has an affinity for oxygen (can carry 4 O2 molecules)
    • When haemoglobin becomes oxygenated, it is known as oxyhaemoglobin
    • The Bohr Effect
      • The reaction happens both ways (reversible reaction)
      • In high level so oxygen, the arrow moves towards forming oxyhaemoglobin because there's more oxygen. More likely to be forming (lungs)
      • Low levels, arrows towards oxygen, less oxygen been used by the cells. More likely to be breaking
      • Dissociation - the breaking of oxygen from haemoglobin
      • Affinity - the natural force pulling the oxygen to the haemoglobin
      • Partial pressure/oxygen tension - the pressure of oxygen in the air you breathe in
      • Increase n oxygen tension, likelihood of oxygen binding with haemoglobin increases
      • Decrease more likely to dissociate into oxygen and haemoglobin.
      • 4 protein molecule, 2 beta and 2 alpha glucose (what oxygen links to) 4 globular
      • Loading Tension
        • Carbon dioxide affects the affinity to the haemoglobin to oxygen
        • More CO2, makes haemoglobin give up oxygen
        • H+ + haemoglobin --> haemoglobic acid

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