Glacial processes

What processes are used to form a glacier
Glaciers shape the land through processes of erosion, weathering, transportation and deposition, creating distinct landforms.
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What are the two main forms of glacial erosion?
Abrasion and Plucking
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What is Abrasion?
The glacier moves downhill, rocks that have been frozen into the base and sides of the glacier scrape the bedrock beneath like sandpaper,leaving scratches called striations behind.
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What is Plucking?
Plucking - rocks become frozen into the bottom and sides of the glacier. As the glacier moves downhill it 'plucks' the rocks frozen into the glacier from the ground.
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What is Freeze thaw weathering?
During the day the higher temprates melts the snow and water enters the cracks in the rock. overnight the temprater drops below 0*c causeing the water to freeze and expand by 9% this forces the crack open and over time peices of rock will break off
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What route does a glacier take?
Glaciers usually follow the easiest route down a mountain, which is often an old river valley.
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what is a hanging valley?
Old tributaries, which would have once fed into the valley are left suspended and are known as hanging valleys.
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whats a Tributary river?
a stream that flows to a larger stream or other body of water.
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whats a glacial trough?
Glacial troughs, or glaciated valleys, are long, U-shaped valleys that were carved out by glaciers
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what features do corries produce?
arêtes - this is a narrow ridge of land that is created when two corries erode back towards each other pyramidal peak - if three or more corries erode back towards each other, at the top of a mountain a pointed peak is left behind
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what is a truncated spur?
Truncated spurs are blunt-ended rock ridges which descend from the steep sides of a U-shaped valley or glacial trough. They are often separated by hanging valleys.
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what is a ribbon lake?
A ribbon lake is a long and narrow, finger-shaped lake, usually found in a glacial trough
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What are the main types of glacial transportaion?
freeze-thaw weathering, Plucking, Bulldozing, Rotational slip
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what is rotational slip?
the circular movement of the ice and rock in the corrie
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what is laterial morraine?
material deposited along both sides of the glacier. This moraine is usually made up of weathered material that has fallen from the valley sides above the glacier.
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define Medial moraine
material deposited in the middle of the glacier. This is caused by the lateral moraines of two glaciers when they meet.
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define Terminal moraine
material deposited at the end of the glacier.
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what is Erratics?
rocks that have been deposited by the glacier usually made of a rock type that would not be found in that area
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whats a drumlin?
Drumlins are mounds of deposited moraine. They have a steep side and a sloping side.
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what is glacial drift or glacial till?
the material moved by the glacial melt water
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Define Glacial outwash
sand and gravel deposited by running melt water leaving the glacier. The material is sorted. Heavier particles of sand and gravel are deposited in the glaciated valley. lighter, finer particles (clay) are deposited further away in the outwash plain.
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What is a tarn?
A tarn (or corrie loch) is a mountain lake or pool, formed in a cirque excavated by a glacier. A moraine may form a natural dam below a tarn
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glacial features of a tarn?
1.steep back wall, created by freeze-thaw weathering and plucking 2.steep-sided and narrow ridges called arêtes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the two main forms of glacial erosion?


Abrasion and Plucking

Card 3


What is Abrasion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Plucking?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Freeze thaw weathering?


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