Geography - Water and Rivers

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How is water recycled in the water cycle?
Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation.
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What is a drainage basin?
The area of land drained by a river.
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What is the catchment area?
The area within the drainage basin.
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What is a watershed?
The edge of highland surrounding a drainage basin. It marks the boundary between two drainage basins.
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What is the source of a river?
The beginning of the river.
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What is confluence?
The point at which two rivers or streams join.
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What is a tributary?
A stream or smaller river which joins to a larger stream or river.
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What is the mouth of a river?
The point at which the river comes to an end, usually when it joins to lake or ocean.
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What is erosion?
The wearing away of rock and soil found along the river bed and banks.Erosion ask Erosion also involves the breaking down of rock particles being carried downstream.
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What is hydraulic action?
The force of a river against the banks forces air into cracks and crevices in the banks. The pressure weakens the banks and wears it away.
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What is abrasion?
Rocks carried along by the river wears down the banks.
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What is attrition?
Rocks carried by the river smash together to form smaller, smoother and rounder particles.
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What is solution?
Soluble particles are dissolved into the river.
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What is transportation?
Rivers pick up and carry material as they flow downstream.
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What is solution? (Transportation).
Minerals are dissolved in the water and carried along in solution.
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What is suspension?
Fine light material is carried along the river in the water.
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What is saltation?
Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed.
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What is traction?
Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed.
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Whereabouts in the river are energy levels usually high?
At the source (upper-course).
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Whereabouts in the river are energy levels usually low?
At the mouth (lower-course).
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What energy level is needed for traction to occur?
High energy levels.
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What happens when a river loses energy?
It deposits some of the material it is carrying.
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What may cause a river to have decreased energy levels?
When the volume of water decreases or shallow waters.
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Give some examples of landforms formed upper-course river.
V-shaped Valleys, Waterfalls, Gorges, Rapids.
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Give some examples of landforms formed middle-course river.
Wider&Shallower Waters, Meanders, Ox-bow lakes.
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Give some examples of landforms formed lower-course river.
Floodplains, Deltas, Flat-bottomed valleys.
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How are V-Shaped valleys formed?
As a river moves through the upper-course river vertical erosion (erosion of the bed) occurs. This causes steep valleys to form.
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How are waterfalls formed?
When a river flows over soft&hard rock, soft rock erodes faster&hard rock overhangs. Eventually falls off. Water erodes bed below and plunge pool forms.
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What is a meander?
A meander is curve of the river.
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How are meanders formed?
As the river erodes both right and left it makes a horseshoe-like loop. The force of water erodes the river bank of the bend where the water's energy is highest and where energy low - deposition.
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How is an ox-bow like formed?
As the meander's horseshoe loop becomes tighter and the ends become close together and as the river breaks through (e.g. in a flood when the river has more energy, the ends join and the loop is cut out from the main channel.
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What is a floodplain and explain the advantages of one.
The area around a river that is covered in times of flood. It has very fertile due to the rich alluvium deposited by floodwater. Good for agriculture.
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What is a levee?
A levee is the build up of alluvium on the banks of a river which raise the river bank.
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How is a delta formed?
A delta is formed when the river deposits its material faster than the sea can remove it.
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What can cause floods?
When a river bursts it's banks and the water spills onto the floodplain. Or, heavy rain: the faster the rainwater reaches the river channel, the more likely a flood.The surroundings of a river determine how fast the rain reaches the river channel.
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What encourages flooding?
A steep-sided channel, a lack of woodland or vegetation, a drainage basin in an urban area.
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Why does a steep-sided channel encourage flooding?
The rainwater washes down the slopes into the river channel quickly which encourages the river to burst its banks due to an increased volume of water.
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Why does a lack of vegetation/woodland encourage flooding?
Trees and plants intercept precipitation (the catch or drink some water). If there is little vegetation in the drainage basin then the surface run-off will be high.
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Why does a drainage basin in an urban area encourage flooding?
These consist largely of impermeable concrete (non-absorbent) which encourages overland flow. Drains and sewers take water quickly and directly to the river channel.houses with sloping roofs increase amount of run-off.
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Name some soft-engineering flood management techniques.
Afforestation, Managed Flooding/Ecological Flooding, Planning Development.
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Name some hard-engineering flood management techniques.
Dam Construction and River Engineering.
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What is Afforestation?
The planting of more trees.
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How would Afforestation help?
Trees planted near the river = more interception of rainwater and lower river discharge. Relatively low-cost option and enhances the environmental quality of drainage basin.
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What is managed flooding/ecological flooding?
The river is allowed to flood naturally in places to prevent flooding in other areas (e.g. settlements).
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What is planning development?
Local authorities and national government introduce policies to control urban development close to or on the floodplain.
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Why use planning development? *benefits&drawbacks*
Reduces the chance of flooding and risk of damage to property. However there can be restrictions in areas where there is a shortage of housing. Hard to enforce policies in LEDCs.
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Why use a dam?
Dam used to control river discharge. Water is held back and released by the dam in a controlled way. Dam water can be used to generate hydroelectric power or recreation purposes. However, construction is very expensive and land is lost to build one.
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What is river engineering?
The river channel being changed.
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Why use river- engineering?
River channel can be widened or deepened to carry more water. It can also be straightened so that the water can travel faster. The river channel can be altered, diverting floorwate
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a drainage basin?


The area of land drained by a river.

Card 3


What is the catchment area?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a watershed?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the source of a river?


Preview of the front of card 5
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