Geography Theme 2 Case Studies

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  • Created on: 03-05-14 19:16
Do cyclones form because of high or low pressure?
Low pressure system becomes a tropical storm, then a cyclone.
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What conditions are needed for a cyclone to form?
Seas of a depth of 60m and a temperature of 27 degrees, winds of 74mph
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How was the environment of Burma affected?
In the Irrawaddy delta, rice paddy fields flooded, and the 2008-2009 harvests were lost. There were also storm surges and flooding in other areas, and wind damage to many areas. Animal habbitats were also affected.
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How were people in Burma affected?
130,000 people died, 800,000 homes destroyed, many people displaced. Spread of disease due to water sources becoming polluted with sewerage. Food shortages because of destroyed crops.
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What were the responses to the flood?
Emergency aid given. People rescude from fallen buildings or flooded areas. Help in the building of a new flood levee.
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Where is the Amazon rainforest located?
South America- 5.5 million square kilometres
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What is the climate of the rainforest like?
The equatorial climate-
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How have people used the rainforest?
Destroyed areas for agricultural land and roads. Mines, such as the iron ore mine in Carajas. Logging for wood for furniture.
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How have people benefited from this?
Profits from Carajas have helped Brazil to emerge as an NIC. Jobs created.
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How have people and the environment lost from this economic activity?
Indigenous tribes have lost their homelands. Loss of biodiversity. Disruption to nutrient cycles. Changes in water cycle causing changes in climate.
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Name three sustainable management stratergies for the rainforest?
Debt-for-nature swaps, wildlife corridors, sustainable logging (only cutting down trees of a certain age and species.
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Where and when was cyclone nargis?
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What natural processes in the rainforest are affected by deforestation?
Loss of biodiversity. Disruption to water cycle (transpiration). Increased soil erosion (no interception)-leeching of soil-it becomes infertile. Disruption to nurtient cycle. Changes to climate (reduced transpiration=hotter climate).
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Define desertification.
When an area increasing becomes more desertlike- with the biome typically changing from savannah to hot desert.
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Name an area of the globe particularly at risk of desertification.
The Sahel, Africa- the area of transition between the grasslands of the South and the desert of the North.
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Where is Ghana?
The west coast of Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
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What is the climate of Ghana?
Hot dry climate in the North (with a dry season of 8 months). Most rainfall in south.
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What are the biomes in Ghana?
In the south, tropical rainforest. In the north savannah grassland at risk of desertification.
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What impacts does desertification have on an area?
Lack of nutrients in soil=loss of crops and grazing land for animals=food shortages. Lack of rainfall=dehydration and people having to drink stagnant water.
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So, how has this affected quality of life in the north of Ghana?
In the North, very low literacy levels (21%). In the South, much higher literacy levels (78%). In the North, two times higher infant mortality rates than South. Average GDP 3x higher in most southern areas than most northern areas.
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Name the human causes that have increased the problem of desertification in Ghana.
Slash and burn farming. Deforestation for firewood and the expansion of urban areas. Overgrazing of farm animals. Lack of irrigation causing crop death and poor quality infertile soil. Povery/civil war leading to lack of investment in farming
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Name a physical cause of desertification.
High pressure systems causing drought leading to the death of vegetation.
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What about agribuisness in Ghana?
Agribuisness is using land to grow crops for biofuels. Some scientists say that allowing comercial farms (who use land more intensly) to use land that is already at risk of desertification will only increase problems for Ghana.
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Name some management stratergies used to try and lessen the problem of desertification in Ghana.
Tree planting schemes (afforestation). Using water buts to collect all rainwater possible, which can be used to irrigate crops. Farmers educated in more sustainable farming methods-for example teaching them to plant more drought resistant crops.
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Name some more.
Building bunds (low stone walls) on sloped farmland to try and prevent soil erosion. Bottom up projects such as Upesi stoves. These stoves use less firewood (meaning less deforestation of trees). Also provide an income for the women who make them.
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Where is the River Severn?
Source in Welsh mountains, then flows through Shropshire and Worcestershire.
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When were the River Severn floods?
June-July 2007
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What were the causes of the 2007 floods?
Summer 2007- warmer than average sea temps=depressions with greater potential for rainfall. Heavy rainfall caused by slow moving depressions from the 13th-15th & 24th-25th June. Saturated ground from long period of higher than average rainfall.
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Name some more.
Rivers full and burst their banks. Urban creep (urbanization of floodplains), reducing infiltration and lagtime.
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Name some short term impacts of the floods.
Thousands of motorists stranded as impassable roads (such as the M5) were closed. Bridge in Ludlow collapsed. Crops ready for harvest destroyed. In Gloucester, power station closed and 40,000 without power.
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Name some more short term impacts of the floods.
Water treatment plant in Tewksbury flooded and 350,000 left without power. Schools and buisnesses closed.
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Name some long term impacts of the floods.
People whose homes were flooded had to live in caravans or relatives, some up until Christmas. Buisnesses loss custom and orders. Farmers lost over £11 million in crops. £3billion given in insurance claims. 14 people died. 55,000 homes damaged.
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Tell me about the flood defences that were made in Shrewsbury after the floods.
£4.6 million flood defence scheme, including 700m of flood embankments and walls. This was funded by government and local contributors.
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What do embankments do?
An embankment increases the channel height of the river to increase the amount of water a river can take before it floods.
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What happened in mid-Wales?
Areas of bogs and marshlands near the source of the Severn were restored. This means the river will spill naturally into these areas and reduce the amount of water in the river downstream.
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What regulations were made?
Tighter regulations on building on floodplains and paving over gardens.
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Who may be pleased about the new defences?
Residents of Shrewsbury. Spokesperson for the RSPB- restoring moorland in Wales provides vital habitats.
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Who may be less pleased about the new defences?
River scienticts/residents down stream-embankments speed up flow of water and increase flooding downstream. Instead we should focus on soft engineering.
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Where is the Dorset coast?
On the south coast of England, stretching from Lyme Regis to Studland Bay
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Why is the coast important?
SSSI. Great diversity of costal wildlife. Many unique geographical features, including Durdle Door, Chesil Beach and Lulworth Cove. Attracts tourists to the area.
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What type of landform is Chesil Beach?
A tombolo
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By which processes was it created?
Deposition (and longshore drift moving sediment from west to east).
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Where is the tombolo located?
Stretches for more than 15km south east, joining the Isle of Portland to the mainland.
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What is behind the beach?
A lagoon-the Fleet, which is an important wildlife area.
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How does the landform affect people?
Bird watchers-visit the beach to watch birds as they stop at Fleet lagoon on their migratory paths. Local teenagers given seasonal work in the cafes by the beach. Local homeowners protected from flooding by the natural flood defence.
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What about residents of the Isle of Portland?
They are connected to the mainland by the beach.
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Name some negative effects of Chesil Beach.
Material accumulating on the beach means increased erosion along the coast. In peak visiting time, nearby roads and facilities become congested.
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Name the four types of shoreline management plans.
Holding the line, advancing the line, managed retreat and doing nothing.
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Tell me about Lyme Regis.
Popular tourist town (population quadruples in the summer months). Famous site for dinosaur fossils. Has a long history of erosion and landslips leading to the loss of homes and businesses.
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How is erosion managed at Lyme Regis?
By a shoreline management plan, which came into action in the 1990s.
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Name the defences built under this plan.
£17 million sea wall (protects against force of waves). Beach nourishment (extra shingle and sand added to absorb wave energy). Rock armour extended to preserve new beach. Drainage systems improved. Lister gardens built to stablise cliffs.
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Name landforms created by erosion on the dorset coast.
Durdle Door. Old Harry Rocks.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What conditions are needed for a cyclone to form?


Seas of a depth of 60m and a temperature of 27 degrees, winds of 74mph

Card 3


How was the environment of Burma affected?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How were people in Burma affected?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were the responses to the flood?


Preview of the front of card 5
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