Geography

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Precipitation
all the moisture that comes from the atmosphere. Mainly rain but can include snow, hail etc
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Evaporation
water turning into water vapour – going from a liquid to a gas
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Interception
the process of stopping water reaching soil. Precipitation can be intercepted by vegetation. Buildings and tarmac also intercept water
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Stem Flow
Water reaching the ground by running down branches, trunks or stems of plants
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Channel Flow
water flowing along in the river itself
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Surface run-off(overland flow)
water flowing over the land
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Infiltration
water soaking into the soil. Influenced by soil types, saturation levels.
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Throughflow
water moving slowly downhill through the soil
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Percolation
water seeping down through soil into the water table
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Water table
the level at which the soil is saturated.
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Groundwater flow
water flowing slowly below the water table through permeable rock (slowest flow)
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Base flow
Groundwater feeding into the river through riverbanks and the riverbed
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Transpiration
Plants and trees take up water through their roots and evaporate it from their leaves
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Evapotranspiration
the processes of evaporation and transpiration are often difficult to separate and are commonly referred to as Evapotranspiration
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River discharge
takes water out of the system
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River discharge
takes water out of the system
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Throughfall
the water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm, when more water falls onto the canopy that can remain on the leaves
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Deposition
the laying down os solid material in the form of sediment, on the bed of the river or the sea floor
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Erosion
The break up of rocks by the action of rock particles being moved over the earth's surface by water, wind and ice
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Transportation
The movement of particles from the place where they were eroded to the place where they are deposited
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Hazard
a natural event that threatens life and property. A disaster is the realisation of the hazard.
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River management
river basins are subject to strategies designed to prevent flooding and o ensure their is an adequate supply of water.
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Incised meander
caused by rejuvenation. A meander that has deeply cut intot the floodplain, creating steep cliff-like banks.
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Knick point
Usually marked by rapids, represents rejuvenation and is a sudden break in the long profile of a river
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Rejuvenation
An increase in the energy of a river caused by either a fall in its base level or an uplift of land.
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River terrace
A narrow, flat piece of ground that runs parallel to the river on either side, above the level of the floodplain. Usually created by a fall in base level.
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Marine processes
Processes operating upon a coastline that are connected with the sea, such as waves, tides and longshore drift.
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Sub-aerial processes
Processes operating on the land but affecting the shape of the coastline, such as weathering, mass movement and runoff.
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Coastal zone
the area where the ocean meets the land which constitutes 10% of the oceans area but contains 90% of all marine species.
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Birth rate
live births per thousand people per year
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Death rate
deaths per thousand people per year
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Natural change
The change in size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rates. When birth rate > death rate, the population grows – natural increase; when birth rate < death rate, the population falls – natural decrease
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Fertility rate
number of live births per thousand women in the age range 15 – 44, also the average number of children per female
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Infant mortality rate
number of deaths of babies under 1 year old per thousand live births.
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Life expectancy
average number of years a person can expect to live in a given country.
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Longetivity
The increase in life expectancy over a peroid of time.
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dependancy ratio
((No. of children (0 – 15 years) + No. of Elderly (65+))/Number of people working age (16-64)) x100
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Forced migration
The migrant has to migrate because of circumstances
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International migration
the movement of people across national frontiers, for a minimum of 1 year
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Migration
A permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people
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Net migration
the difference between the numbers of in-migrants and out-migrants in an area. In-migrants>out-migrants=net migrational gain. In-migrants
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Rural-urban migration
net migrational gain of urban areas results in urbanisation. (counter-urbanisation)
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Voluntary migration
The migrant makes the decision to migrate.
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Population density
The number of people in an area. Population divided by area.
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Population Structure
The proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age distributions.
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Agriculture
The production of food, animal feed, fibre, fuel and other goods by systematic growing of plants and the breeding and raising of animals.
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GM foods
Food from genetic modification of organisms which have altered genomes through genetic engineering techniques.
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Green revolution
A package of Agricultural improvenemts that transformed agriculture in developing countries, leading to increase in agricultural production.
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Subsistence Farming
only producing enough for one family or tribe, may be intensive or extensive, always multiple crops, usually on small land areas. Eg. Upland rice farming in Sierra Leone
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Sustainability
Agricultural sustainability refers to the ability of a farmer to produce food indefinitely without causing irreversible damage to the local ecosystem.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

water turning into water vapour – going from a liquid to a gas

Back

Evaporation

Card 3

Front

the process of stopping water reaching soil. Precipitation can be intercepted by vegetation. Buildings and tarmac also intercept water

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Water reaching the ground by running down branches, trunks or stems of plants

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

water flowing along in the river itself

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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