geography AS poplation

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describe stage 1 of the DTM
high death rate / high birth rate / population is low / e.g. brazilian rainforest tribes
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describe stage 2 of the DTM
death rate falls / still high birth rate / population increases rapidly / e.g. kenya and chad
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describe stage 3 of the DTM
death rate falls slowly / birth rate falls rapidly / population still increasing / e.g. Brazil
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describe stage 4 of the DTM
birth rate is low and death rate is low population is high but starts to stabilise / e.g. France and the UK
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describe stage 5 of the DTM
birth rate decline further / death rate stays the same / populations slowly starts to decrease / e.g. germany and japan
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strengths of thee DTM
universal concept / easy to understand due to visual representation / allows comparisons between countries / demonstrates the process countries will go through
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Weaknesses of the DTM
eurocentric meaning assumes all countries will follow the european sequence / doesnt take other factors into account such as war or natural disasters / countries may go backwards due to war etc.
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what is population structure
the proportion of males and females in an area usually in the form of age distribution
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what is the dependency ratio formula
(% of under 18s) + (% over 65) divided by the % between 18-65
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what are some opportunities of an ageing population
improved life expectancy / grey pound improves economy / healthier grandparents can be forms of child care / business opportunities for elderly specific products or services e.g. meals on wheels
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challenges for an ageing poplation
increase retirement age / increasing pressure on the NHS / Housing shortages as elderly people leive at home longer / isolation and loneliness of the elderly / burden on economically active
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benefits of a useful population
lead to more working aged people / more investment into the economy / more tax payers
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problems with a youthful populaiton
pressure on housing / pressure on schooling leading to high illiteracy rates / press on food supplies / pressure on economically active / pressure on healthcare
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what is a pro-natalist population policy
trying to increase the population e.g. France
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what is an anti-natalist population policy
trying to reduce the population e.g. china
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what strategies have been implemented in France
generous maternity grants and leave / family allowances / provision of day nurseries / pension schemes for mothers
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what strategies were implemented in China
sanctioned with large fines for second child / free contraception / free medical checks for 1 child /
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reasons for kerala's reduced population increase
girls outnumber boys in higher education / allowing aternity for only the first 2 babies / literacy rates are 91% / no family is allowed more than 8 hectares
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what is Malthus' theory
in time there will not be enough resources for everyone / many people may be killed in wars over resources / human population will rise quicker than resources leading to a crisis point / the population woulds starve and eventually reduces
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what is thomas' theory
changes in technology allow for improved crop yield / if you need something it will be invented therefore food will be made.
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what is immigration
moving into a country
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what is emigration
moving out of a country
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push factors for mexico to usa migration
40% unemployed / life expectancy 72 / low paid jobs / poor education / poor medical facilities - 1800 per doctor
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pull factors for mexico to usa migration
adult literacy rates 99% / well paid jobs / life expectancy 76 / less crime
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characteristics of a central business district
public transport / high priced flats / overcrowded / student / shopping centres / highest wealth
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characteristics of an inner city
terrace housing / young families / little green space / low economy / old unused factories / industrial / poorly maintained
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characteristics of inner suburbs
some detached houses / garages and driveways / 3 or 4 bed houses / some semi-detached houses / small gardens / wider roads
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characteristics of outer suburbs
increased house prices / transport links / schools / parks / low crime rates / larger gardens
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characteristics of the rural urban fringe
ageing population / expensive housing but a lot for your money / commuters / farming / power stations / huge gardens / sparsely populated
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

describe stage 2 of the DTM

Back

death rate falls / still high birth rate / population increases rapidly / e.g. kenya and chad

Card 3

Front

describe stage 3 of the DTM

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

describe stage 4 of the DTM

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

describe stage 5 of the DTM

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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