¾ on pacific ring of fire ( 450), eyjafjallajokull 2010 - ash fallout caused 20 countries to stop flights - ash gets into jet stream can be transported very far distances from source
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Great barrier- largest - 2600 km east australia -economic contribution of $6.4 billion a year, and economic, social and icon asset of $56 billion
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Tsunami not caused by Earthquake
Peruvian ice cap broke of into sea in 2010 - 500 by 200 meters in peruvian andes- 23 meter high tsunami to towns
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Chesil beach dorset- isle of portland to mainland - 18 miles with lagoons formed behind
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over 300 in indian and pacific oceans- only flank islands ( volcanic)
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Volcanic gases-
Lake Nyos, Cameroon- deep lake crater. August 1986- gas escapes and swept into villages- 25km- 50 metre thick cloud - 1700 died and 3000 cattle- deprived of o2
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Campania, Italy 1998 - 300 died. Year of rainfall fallen in two weeks. Mountainous and volcanic area- etna and vesuvius
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Puerto rico - 70-80 mountainous- heavy rain may- october tropical storm season . 1985 storm Isabel. Majority of landslides in Upland areas- steepest and rock falls and debris flows - killed 129 people and 100 homes
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Venezuela mudslides-
1999 biggest disaster of country in 200 years- 40-50 % above average rainfall- killed 30000 people when 2000 metres of mt Avila collapsed
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Bilateral aid-
3 gorges dam- france and Canada and others- $1.4 billion- generated 84.7 billion kwh Green revolution - reduced famine and and USA developed golden rice crop - GM- philippines use- solve problem of vitamin A deficiency - killed 670,000 kids below 5 p
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Barrier beaches
eastern Seaboard- 300 islands along East coast
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Nevado del Ruiz, colombia- covered in 30 metres of ice cap area of 20km2. 1985- activity- hot pyroclastic material chucked up - melt ice which mixed with steam and pyroclastic flow- lahar that destroyed village of chinchina - killed 1800 people
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Location advantage
France tourism - 82 million per year - 42 billion euros
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Hurricane Irma
winds up to 185 km/hr - 36 hrs long - longest ever recorded- category 5 - death toll of 107 people- 90 % of barbudas building damaged - evacuation of 6.5 million people- global warming made it worse - rising sea levels, more rainfall
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Changes in Global Market
Receive more FDI- BRICS got 42% ( 30% to China alone) G7 got 17% ( uk, france, italy, canada, germany, USA, Japan)
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Tornado alley-
texas, kansas ( wizard of oz!!) and oklahoma!- 1000 tornadoes a year Indiana tornadoes - in tornado alley- get intense tornadoes - mainly may- june
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European 1999- 75 people killed in Alps- precaution had been taken - avalanche walls to stop Taconnaz glacier getting onto motorway. However montroc not protected
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China cancer villages-
Southern eastern areas- highest population density - power plants- ½ surface water undrinkable Xiditou- 30 times higher chance of lung cancer Aluminium factors- fluoride run off into yangtze tributaries - used for irrigation 30000 kids dies from wat
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Fair trade
Kuapa Kokoo- GHANA - 45000 cocoa farmers Shared ownership in divine- control over running and get money from profits
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Malawi- phala- good food project - feeding projects in schools- 7000 kids a day Micro Hydro power- falling water into turbines to drive generators- 500 kw of power- local communities Funds military- ETHIOPIA- bait for malicia Columbia- huge influx o
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flooded with cheap imports- coconut price dropped 80% and coffee dropped 60%
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Galapagos islands- reached and exceeded- pop doubles every 11 years, cruise ships rise, illegal fishing of shark and sea cucumber- all time high, hotel opened 2006 VISITOR NUMBERS- 160000
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1.5 million tonnes of oil spilt in 50 years - top 5 polluted areas Social impact - effects 20 million people- destroy fish and crops Natural gas is burnt ( flared) ( to get rid of gas releases from drilling for oil) - 70 million m3 a day- no pipel
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⅔ of the world will be affected by water shortage- 2025- aquifers are being drained faster than replenished - yemen and jordan 30% more- africa- 206 million live in water stressed/scares areas 60% worlds pop- area of 25% precipitation Arid regions-
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BP oil spill- gulf of Mexico 2010
Release of 40,000 barrels of oil a day 4.9 million tonnes barrel total 2.2 million barrels still there Affected communities on coast- dependent on tourism and fishing and drilling
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Chernobyl disaster
Ukraine 1986 1 of 4 reactors exploded 100,000km2 of land contaminated + 4 km of pine forest
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Oil sand deposits- bitumen and sand- idea that it is a large energy source for the future - potential of 200 billion barrels of oil Provide employment to 22000 workers- produce 1.3 million barrels a day-
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Solutions to pollution-
Montreal protocol- banning of CFCs- cause a 4% decline a decade to ozone layer- one part of global warming- others is trapping of heat, sea acidification and smog
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Urban environments-
Delhi - 2014 most polluted city 7.2 million vehicles - public transport investment- metro line of 190km
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Rural environments-
Amazon - size of belgium cut down every year - 80% illegal ⅓ world land - affected by salinization and erosion Cattle - 1.5 billion - 1/3rd of agriculture land- another ⅓ - their feed More people more cows- more cows- more manure- more pollution
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Great barrier- largest - 2600 km east australia -economic contribution of $6.4 billion a year, and economic, social and icon asset of $56 billion

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Tsunami not caused by Earthquake


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