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The definition of percolation
The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface
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Equation to calculate water balance
precipitation = streamflow + evapotranspiration +/- changes in stores
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Define soil moisture surplus
when inputs exceed outputs, so the ground is saturated
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Define recharging
when the amount of soil moisture is returned to field capacity
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Define field capacity
the normal level of water held by the soil
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Define soil utlisation
when the ground is dry due to outputs>inputs
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Define infiltration capacity
The spped as which water can pass through the ground surface, in mm/hr
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Name 4 human factors affecting discharge
deforestation, urbanisation, flood defences, irrigation and drains
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Name 4 physical factors affecting discharge
Soil type, geology, precipitqtion, litter layer, slope, deciduous vegetation
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Equation to calculate hydraulic radius
cross sectional area/wetted perimeter
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Define capacity
the amount of load a river can carry
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Define competence
the diameter of the largest particl that the river can carry
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Define flocculation
the chemical settlin of silts and clays to form mudflats
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Name 3 landforms created in the upper stages
waterfalls, gorges, interlocking spurs, v-shaped valley
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Name 2 landforms created in the middle stages
meanders, oxbow lakes, U-shaped valleys
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Name 3 landforms created in the lower stages
delta, estuary, floodplain
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When does the 'ideal graded profile' occur?
When inputs and outputs are balanced, and the depostion and erosion are balanced
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What does the Hjulstrom curve do?
Shows the relationship between particle size, velocity, deposition, transportation and erosion
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Name 2 issues with the hjulstrom curve
It should use the velocity at the base of the channel where the material is located, the curve refers to a smooth channel where as most are irregular, water flow is naturally variable while the curve suggests a regular flow
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Name the 2 lines on the Hjustrom curve
Critical erosion curve (top) and critical deposition line (bottom)
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3 place specific details of the High Force Waterfall
The River Tees, Northern England, 21.5m in height, 700m long gorge, 30m wide, Caboniferous limestone and Dolerite
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3 place specific details of rapids
The Des Moines rapids, Mississippi river, 2.34 feet mean depth
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Define helical flow
the corkscrew motion of water3
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Example of potholes
The Devil's Ketlle, Minnesota
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3 place specific details of an oxbow lake
Lake Chico, Mississippi river, 20 miles long, 3/4 of a mile wide and cut off 600 years ago
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The 3 types of deposit that make up deltas (from largest to smallest)
Topset, foreset, bottomset
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3 place specific details of an arcuate delta
The Nile, cover 240km, around 160 in length
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3 place specific details of a cuspate delta
The Ebro Delta, Spain, 320km covered
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3 place specific details of a Birds foot delta
The Mississippi delta, 12000km, consists of 6 smaller deltas
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Desription of an arcuate delta
fan shaped, many short active distributaries
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Desription of a Birds foot delta
river dominated fewer distributaries, very fine material
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Describe a cuspate delta
tooth shaped, one distributary, wave action hitting flat coastline head on
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Define alluvium
silts and clays deposited by the river (make up floodplains)
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2 place specific details of levees
Mississippi river, 3200km
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Define coagulate
stick together (in reference to sediment), caused by chemical reactions that take place when fresh and sea water meet
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Define entrainment
in transportation by the river
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What causes regrading?
A negative change in base level -> increases the potential energy of a river -> allows it to revive its erosive energy
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Name of the ice age dyrin which Britains land was depressed
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2 changes that can cause rejuvenation
isostatic uplift, eustatic fall in sea level
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Name the landforms created by rejuvenation
knickpoints, river terraces, incised meanders (entrenched and ingrown)
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Describe a knickpoint
A waterfall created to sudden isostatic/eustatic chnage in base level
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Describe a river terrace and give an example
Remnants of former floodplains, e.g the Taplow and Boyn Hill terraces in London
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Difference between ingrown and entrenched incised meanders
Ingrow are asymmetrical, less rapid incision, Entrenched are symmetrical, more rapid incision
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Give an example of an entrenched meander
River Wear at Durham
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Give an example of an ingrown meander
River Wye at Tintern Abbey
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What are pools in reference to meanders?
Areas of deeper water and greater erosion located at the bends
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What are riffles?
Areas of shallower water caused by deposition located in the straighter section between bends
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Equation to calculate water balance


precipitation = streamflow + evapotranspiration +/- changes in stores

Card 3


Define soil moisture surplus


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define recharging


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define field capacity


Preview of the front of card 5
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