gender and culture in psychology: gender bias

  • Created by: IvyVega
  • Created on: 10-06-18 12:56
psychologists seek universality but bias may be inevitable
psychologists possess beliefs and values influenced by the social and historical context within which they live.this may undermine psychologists claims to discover facts about human behaviour that are objective, value-free and consistent across time
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alpha bias exaggerates differences
differences between the sexes are usually presented as freal, enduring, fixed and inevitable. these differences occassionaly heighten the value of women, but are more likely to devalue females in relation to males.
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an example of alpha bias is sociobiological theory of relationship formation.
wilson explained human sexual attraction through survival efficiency, it is in a males interests to try and impregnate as many females as possible to increase the chances of his genes being passed on to the next generation.
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beta bias minimises differences
ignoring or underestimating differences between men and women often occurs when female participants are not included in the research process and it is assumed that research findings apply equally to both sexes
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an example of beta bias is the fight or flight response
early research into fight or flight was based exclusively on male animals. the fight or flight response was assumed to be a universal response to a threatening situation. taylor et al suggest female biology has evolved to inhibit the fight or flight
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one consequence of beta bias is androcentrism
if our understanding of normal behaviour comes from research involving all male samples, then any behaviour that deviates from this standard is judged as abnormal or inferior. this leads to female behaviour being misunderstood and even pathologised.
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limitation 1- problems in psychological research
gender biased research may create misleading assumptions about female behaviour and validate discriminatory practices. not just methodological problems, but damaging consequences.
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limitation 2- promotes sexism in the research process
a lack of women at senior research level means female concerns may not be reflected in research questions asked. male researchers are more likely to have work published.
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Card 2

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differences between the sexes are usually presented as freal, enduring, fixed and inevitable. these differences occassionaly heighten the value of women, but are more likely to devalue females in relation to males.

Back

alpha bias exaggerates differences

Card 3

Front

wilson explained human sexual attraction through survival efficiency, it is in a males interests to try and impregnate as many females as possible to increase the chances of his genes being passed on to the next generation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

ignoring or underestimating differences between men and women often occurs when female participants are not included in the research process and it is assumed that research findings apply equally to both sexes

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

early research into fight or flight was based exclusively on male animals. the fight or flight response was assumed to be a universal response to a threatening situation. taylor et al suggest female biology has evolved to inhibit the fight or flight

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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