Gaseous Exchange- Problems Associated With Increase in Size

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What is a respiratory surface?
The site of gaseous exchange
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What is the respiratory surface in fish?
Gills
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What is the respiratory surface in mammals?
Alveoli in the lungs
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What is the respiratory surface in insects?
Trachea
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What is the respiratory surface in plants?
Spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves
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What are three important factors of a respiratory surface?
Large surface area to volume ratio, be thin and be permeable
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Name a simple, unicellular organism?
Amoeba
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What is the gas exchange surface of an amoeba?
The cell membrane
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Where does an amoeba live?
In water
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How do organisms become larger?
By cells aggregating together
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What are four problems a multicellular organism has to overcome with gaseous exchange?
The have a low surface area to volume ratio, they have a higher rate of metabolism (require more oxygen), have a toughened body surface and materials need to be exchanged between different organisms
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How are adequate gradients for diffusion maintained?
By movement of the external medium (air) and the internal medium (blood)
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What is the disadvantage of respiratory surfaces being thin?
They are easily damaged
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What is a disadvantage of respiratory surfaces being located inside the body?
Makes them difficult to ventilate
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What are two benefits of the organism being flat?
Increases surface area to volume ratio and ensures no body part is far from the surface (short diffusion paths)
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What does metabolic rate mean?
the rate at which energy is used up in the body
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What does metabolism mean?
The total chemical processes in the body
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Why does an earthworm need to secrete mucus onto its surface?
To keep the skin moist for gaseous exchange
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Do worms have specialised exchange surfaces?
No
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How does the blood system maintain a concentration gradient at the respiratory surface of an earth worm?
Carbon dioxide and oxygen are carried in the opposite directions
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What sort of clood system does the earth worm have?
A closed blood system
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What does closed blood system mean?
Blood is contained in vessels
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As size and specialisation increases, tissues and organs become more dependent or independent on each other?
More dependent
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What is the benefit of having a respiratory pigment in the blood?
Increases the oxygen-carrying capacity
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Card 2

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What is the respiratory surface in fish?

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Gills

Card 3

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What is the respiratory surface in mammals?

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Card 4

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What is the respiratory surface in insects?

Back

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Card 5

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What is the respiratory surface in plants?

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