AS level Biology (OCR)-Cells Exchange and Transport

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First 185 words of the document:

201
3
Thi
s can
b e
used
f
or
the 9t
h
January
exam i
n
2013 but
can
be
used
for
fur
ther
exams.
Bethany
Cunningham
[A LEVEL BIOLOGY
NOTES]
Thi
s i
s f
or
A S
level
bi
ology
not
es (
A 2
w i
l
l
be
adde d
lat
er)
and
thi
s i
s f
oll
owed f
rom t
he OC R
speci
fi
cati
on and
revi
si
o n
fr
om col
lege.
Ther
e i
s al
so a
Pow er
P oi
nt
avai
labl
e and
thi
s can
be
vi
ewed
on:
htt
p:/
/

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Page 2

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CELLS, EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT
CELL STRUCTURE RECOGNISE THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES AND OUTLINE THEIR FUNCTIONS:
NUCLEUS, NUCLEOLUS AND NUCLEAR ENVELOPE.…read more

Page 3

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Mitochondria (plural mitochondrion) Thi
s i
s the
sit
e
of
ae r
ob i
c r
espirat
ion.
The y
have
a double
memb rane t
h at
provi
des i
n sul
ati
on to
preven t
t
he react
ions
i
n t
he mitochond r
ia
ha vi
ng an ef
fect
on t
h e
rest
of
the
or
ga nel
les i
n t
he
anima l
cel
l.…read more

Page 4

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Long,
t
hin
extensi
ons
fr
om
t
he sur
face
of
the
cel
l
w hi
ch
can
provi
de movement.
Pl
ant
cel
ls
(a
eukar
yot
ic
cel
l)
al
so
have
all
of
t
hese
organel
les,
yet
j
ust
as
bef
ore
in
G CSE
they
have
some
ext
ra
or
ganel
les.…read more

Page 5

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Has
to
be
s
tai
ned
SEM(S canni
ng 10nm 100,
000x 3D i
ma ge The
sa mple
el
ectr
on Lar
ge
size has
to
b e
micr
oscope) A
go od coat
ed in
magnif
icati
o metal
n
and Has t
o be put
r
esolut
ion.…read more

Page 6

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WHAT IS THE NEED FOR STAINING SAMPLES FOR USE IN LIGHT MICROSCOPY AND ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY?
Most
samp l
es need
to be
stai
ned i
n l
ight
and el
ectr
on micr
oscopy
because most
b i
ologi
cal
mater
ial
i
s c
o l
ourl
ess/t
ransparent
and
li
gh t
/el
ectr
ons pass
thr
ough
the sample
w i
thout
r
efl
ecti
ng/absorbi
ng i
t.…read more

Page 7

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No nucl
eus (t
his
me ans
that
t
her
e i
s no Ther
e i
s a
nucl
eus
w i
th
a nucl
eolus,
nucl
ear
nucl
eolus,
nuclear
envel
ope,
nucl
ear
pores envel
ope,
nucl
ear
por
e s
and chr
oma t
in.
and
chroma t
in).
The
D NA
is
fr
ee fl
oat
ing.
The DNA
is
locat
ed i
n
the
nu cl
eolus.
DNA
is
cir
cular
(pl
asmid).…read more

Page 8

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DESCRIBE, WITH THE AID OF DIAGRAMS, THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
The
fl
uid
mo sai
c model
is
a cl
ear
represent
ati
on of
t
he cel
l
memb rane.…read more

Page 9

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Receptor
s on
the
surf
ace of
memb r
ane
(gl
ycoprot
ein)
bi
nd t
o si
gnall
i
n g
mol
ecule.
The
shap e
of
the
recept
or
ma t
ches si
gnall
i
n g
molecul
es
thi
s i
s a
comp l
ement
ary
shape.
The
desired
outcome
takes
place.
January 2011As
par
t
of
an
all
ergi
c r
esponse,
cer
tai
n c
e l
l
s i
n t
he
lungs
rel
ease
his
tami
ne.…read more

Page 10

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Act
ive
tr
ansport
i
s t
he
mo vement
of
part
icl
es
and
i
t r
equi
res
ATP because
it
goes
agai
nst
the
concent
rat
ion
gradi
ent
(
low t
o hi
gh)
and needs
energy
to
do
so.
Act
ive
tr
an spor
t
is
usual
ly
car
ri
ed out
by
tr
anspor
ter
me mbranes.…read more

Comments

Asha Ibrahim

THIS IS AMAZING THANK YOU SO MUCH!

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