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Page 1

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201
3

Thi
s can
b e
used
f
or
the 9t
h
January
exam i
n
2013 but
can
be
used
for
fur
ther

exams.

Bethany
Cunningham









[A LEVEL BIOLOGY
NOTES]
Thi
s i
s f
or
A S
level
bi
ology
not
es (
A 2
w i…

Page 2

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CELLS, EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT


CELL STRUCTURE RECOGNISE THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES AND OUTLINE THEIR FUNCTIONS:
NUCLEUS, NUCLEOLUS AND NUCLEAR ENVELOPE. ROUGH AND SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
(ER), GOLGI APPARATUS, RIBOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, LYSOSOMES, CHLOROPLASTS, PLASMA (CELL
SURFACE) MEMBRANE, CENTRIOLES, FLAGELLA AND CILIA EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE
CYTOSKELETON IN PROVIDING MECHANICAL STRENGTH TO…

Page 3

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Mitochondria (plural mitochondrion) Thi
s i
s the
sit
e
of
ae r
ob i
c r
espirat
ion.
The y
have
a double
memb rane t
h at
provi
des i
n sul
ati
on to
preven t
t
he react
ions
i
n t
he mitochond r
ia…

Page 4

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Long,
t
hin
extensi
ons
fr
om
t
he sur
face
of
the
cel
l
w hi
ch
can
provi
de movement.




Pl
ant
cel
ls
(a
eukar
yot
ic
cel
l)
al
so
have
all
of
t
hese
organel
les,
yet
j
ust
as
bef
ore
in
G CSE…

Page 5

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Has
to
be
s
tai
ned


SEM(S canni
ng 10nm 100,
000x 3D i
ma ge The
sa mple
el
ectr
on Lar
ge
size has
to
b e
micr
oscope) A
go od coat
ed in
magnif
icati
o metal

n
and Has t
o be put

r
esolut…

Page 6

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WHAT IS THE NEED FOR STAINING SAMPLES FOR USE IN LIGHT MICROSCOPY AND ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY?



Most
samp l
es need
to be
stai
ned i
n l
ight
and el
ectr
on micr
oscopy
because most
b i
ologi
cal

mater
ial
i
s c
o l
ourl
ess/t
ransparent…

Page 7

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No nucl
eus (t
his
me ans
that
t
her
e i
s no Ther
e i
s a
nucl
eus
w i
th
a nucl
eolus,
nucl
ear

nucl
eolus,
nuclear
envel
ope,
nucl
ear
pores envel
ope,
nucl
ear
por
e s
and chr
oma t
in.

and…

Page 8

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DESCRIBE, WITH THE AID OF DIAGRAMS, THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE


The
fl
uid
mo sai
c model
is
a cl
ear
represent
ati
on of
t
he cel
l
memb rane.
The `
fl
uid'
r
epresent
s t
he
phosphol
ipi
d bi
layer
and
how…

Page 9

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Receptor
s on
the
surf
ace of
memb r
ane
(gl
ycoprot
ein)
bi
nd t
o si
gnall
i
n g
mol
ecule.

The
shap e
of
the
recept
or
ma t
ches si
gnall
i
n g
molecul
es
thi
s i
s a
comp l
ement
ary…

Page 10

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Act
ive
tr
ansport
i
s t
he
mo vement
of
part
icl
es
and
i
t r
equi
res
ATP because
it
goes
agai
nst
the
concent
rat
ion
gradi
ent
(
low t
o hi
gh)
and needs
energy
to
do
so.
Act
ive
tr
an spor
t…

Comments

Asha Ibrahim

THIS IS AMAZING THANK YOU SO MUCH!

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