Forensic Psychology

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 19-05-16 13:41
Name the four problems in defining crime.
1. Historical context. 2. Culture. 3. Age. 4. Specific Circumstances.
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Historical context is an issue as...
something that was once defined as crime might not be considered a crime any more. (VICE VERSA)
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Culture is an issue as....
a crime in one culture may not be elsewhere.
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Age is an issue because...
when do we class someone to have a full understanding of whether their behaviour is criminal.
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Specific circumstances is an issue as...
the motive of the crime may not be purposeful.
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Name the three methods to measure crime.
Official statistics, victim survey and offender self-report.
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Keywords for official statistics.
Reported, Recorded, 'dark figure', '25%', police recording rules.
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Name the study for official statistics and what they found.
Farrington and Dowds. Crime figures between counties - Nottinghamshire more likely to record thefts under £10 value, whereas others didn't.
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Keywords for victim surveys.
British Crime Survey, 2 years, 16 - 24 years old, randomly selected.
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Keywords for Offender Self-report.
Previous offender, risk of offending, longitudinal, biased and exaggerated.
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What is Offender Profiling?
Used to predict personality or behavioural characteristics of an offender. Only used on serial offenders. Assumption = same people carrying out the crimes.
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Keywords of the Typology Approach.
Organised vs disorganised offenders, interviews and case studies of 36 serial sex offenders.
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Organised offender crime scene characteristics.
Evidence of plan, victim is stranger, removes weaponary from scene and body is hidden.
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Organised offender likely personality and behaviour.
Average-high IQ, skilled employment, living with partner.
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Disorganised offender crime scene characteristics.
Little evidence of plan, victim is known, leaves evidence, body left in open view.
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Disorganised offender likely personality and behaviour.
Below-average IQ, unskilled employment, lives alone and close to the scene.
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What did Douglas suggest for the typology approach?
A 'mixed' category to accomodate for offenders in between both categories.
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Research that supports the typology approach.
Canter et al - 100 murders by 100 serial killers USA assessed for 39 characteristics. FOUND disorganised characteristics rare.
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Keywords of the geographical approach.
Mental schema, location, MARAUDERS, COMMUTERS.
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Name the research support for geographical approach.
Canter - John Duffy the Railway ******.
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What did Pinizzotto and Finkel say?
Profiling training appears to be of us - more accurate profiles made.
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Name the two early biological explanations of theories of offending.
Lombroso's Atavistic Form, and Sheldon's Somatotype theory.
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Lombroso's theory suggests
1. primitive form - not evolved like rest of society. 2. distinctive physical qualities - criminals BORN not made. 3. large jaw, narrow sloping brow, large ears.
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Sheldon's somatotype theory suggests
crime based on body shape - mesomorphs (mix of somatotypes) were offenders.
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Keywords of Sheldon's research.
200 deliquent photos, 200 control, scale 1-7, rated.
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Name the four modern biological explanations.
Genetic Transmission, Chromosomes, Neurophysiology and Eysenck.
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Keywords of Genetic Transmission.
Twin and adoption studies, concordance rates MZ and DZ, inheritance.
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What percentage of adoptees with biological convict parents but raised by non-criminal parents had convictions?
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Keywords of Chromosomes.
Jacobs et al, XYY = convicts, unreliable, no longer accepted.
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Keywords of Neurophysiology.
Antisocial Personality Disorder, abnormal EEG patterns.
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What does Eysenck propose?
Offending behaviour is not directly inherited, but is a consequence of the type of Nervous System we inherit which determines our personality.
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What did Eysenck create?
Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI).
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Explain the EPI.
yes/no questions, reveals scores on E (extraversion), N (neuroticism) and P (psychoticism).
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Eysenck proposed that...
neurotic-extravert was the criminal type.
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have a nervous system that doesn't condition easily, therefore do not learn from mistakes.
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are emotionally unstable and anxious - UNPREDICTABLE.
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Who supports Eysenck's theory?
McGurk and McDougall.
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Name the three psychodynamic explanations.
Inadequate superego, maternal deprivation and Defence Mechanisms.
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Keywords of inadequate superego.
WEAK - no identification and no moral code. DEVIANT - identifies but with immoral parent. OVER-HARSH - misbehaves to fulfil unconscious desire for punishment and guilt.
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Keywords of maternal deprivation.
attachment broken down - therefore delinquent, emotionless psychopathy.
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Keywords of defence mechanisms.
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Keywords for the Social Learning explanation.
OBSERVATION, IMITATION, VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT. Differential Association Theory - values of associated peers adopted.
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Name the study to support Social Learning explanation.
Farrington et al - 411 boys south London longitudinal study. Nearly half had criminal convictions between 10-50yrs.
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Name the four roles of Custodial Sentencing.
Incapacitation, Rehabilitation, Retribution and Deterrence.
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What is Incapacitation?
Offender is prevented from carrying out the crime again.
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What is Rehabilitation?
Reforming the offender, only offered to long-term sentences.
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What is Retribution?
Offender pays back to society in some way.
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What is deterrence?
Previous offenders are negatively reinforced to deter from offending again, potential offenders are vicariously reinforced to not offend in the future.
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Research to support custodial sentencing effectiveness.
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Name the alternatives to custodial sentencing.
Electronic Tagging and Restorative Justice.
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What is electronic tagging?
It is when an electronic GPS device is fixed to an offender's ankle so they are monitored 24/7. Usually used for curfew (2-12hrs a day).
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Name the study to support Electronic Tagging.
Cassidy et al.
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What is restorative justice?
Meeting between offender and victim, offender has opportunity to make amends and see effects of their crime. Includes fines and community service as well.
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Name the two treatment programmes.
Behaviour Modification and Anger Management.
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Keywords of Behaviour Modification.
Reinforce desirable behaviours, stop undesirable ones. 6 stages. TOKEN ECONOMY.
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Study that supports Behaviour Modification.
Cullen and Seddon.
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Keywords of Anger Management.
CBT, learning to control anger and respond appropriately. 3 stages - COG PREPARATION, SKILL ACQUISITION, APPLICATION PRACTICE.
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Study that supports Anger Management.
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Card 2


something that was once defined as crime might not be considered a crime any more. (VICE VERSA)


Historical context is an issue as...

Card 3


a crime in one culture may not be elsewhere.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


when do we class someone to have a full understanding of whether their behaviour is criminal.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


the motive of the crime may not be purposeful.


Preview of the back of card 5
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