Forensic Psychology

Crime
An act committed in violation of the law, where the consequence is punishment.
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Official Statistics
Figures based on the numbers of crimes that are reported and recorded by the police which are often used by the government to inform crime prevention strategies.
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Victim Surveys
A questionnaire that asks a sample of people which crimes have been committed against them over a fixed period of time and whether or not they have been reported to the police.
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Offender Survey
A self-report measure that requires people to record the number and type of crime that they have committed over a specific period.
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Offender Profiling
An analytical tool that is intended to help investigators accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminals.
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The Top-Down Approach
A method that matches what is known about the crime and the offender to a pre-existing template that the FBI have developed.
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The Bottom-Up Approach
Where they identify several common characteristics in the same type of cases and it helps to anticipate future behaviour changes and identify when multiple offences have been committed by the same person.
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What are the two problems with defining crime?
Cultural and historical differences.
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Organised Offender
An offender who shows evidence of planning, targets the victim and usually has higher than average intelligence.
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Disorganised Offender
An offender who shows little evidence of planning, leaves clues and usually has a lower than average intelligence.
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Atavistic Form
A biological approach to offending that attributes criminal activity to the fact that offenders are genetic throwbacks in modern day society. Recognizable for their facial and cranial characteristics.
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Genetic Explanations
Genetic explanations for crime suggest that would-be offenders inherit a gene, or a combination of genes, that predispose them to commit a crime.
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Neural Explanations
Any explanation of behaviour in terms of functions of the brain and nervous system.
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The Criminal Personality
An individual who scores highly on measures of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism and cannot easily be conditioned.
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Level of Moral Reasoning
Moral reasoning refers to the process by which an individual draws upon their own value system to determine whether an action is right or wrong.
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Differential Association Theory
An explanation for offending which proposes that, through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques and motives for criminal behaviour.
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Psychodynamic Explanations
A theory that suggests that criminals behaviour has been predisposed from early childhood and their interactions with parents.
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Custodial Sentencing
A judicial sentence determined by a court. Serving time in prison or in a therapeutic institution.
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Recidivism
Reoffending, a tendancy to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behaviour.
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What are the aims of Custodial Sentencing?
Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, Rehabilitation.
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Deterrence
The unpleasant prison experience is designed to put off the individual from reoffending.
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Incapacitation
The offender is taken out of society to prevent from reoffending, to protect the public.
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Retribution
Society is enacting revenge for the crime by making the offender suffer, and the level of suffering should be proportionate to the crime 'an eye for an eye'.
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Rehabilitation
Where offenders are taught social skills to try and help them to get away from offending behaviour.
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What are the psychological effects of Custodial Sentencing?
Stress and Depression, Institutionalization and Prisonisation.
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Stress and Depression
Suicide rates are higher in prisons than they are in the general population.
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Institutionalisation
Where they adapt to the norms and routines of prison life.
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Prisonisation
Refers to the way in which prisoners are socialised into adopting an 'inmate code'.
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Behaviour Modification
The aim is to replace undesirable behaviours with more desirable ones through negative and positive reinforcement.
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Anger Management
A programme which involves identifying the signs that trigger anger and also ways to calm down and deal with the situation in a positive way.
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Three stages of Anger Management (CBT)
Cognitive Preparation, Skill Acquisition and Application Practice.
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Restorative Justice
A system for dealing with criminal behaviour which focuses on the rehabilitation for the offenders. Enables the offender to come face to face with the victim to see the impact that their crime had had on them.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Figures based on the numbers of crimes that are reported and recorded by the police which are often used by the government to inform crime prevention strategies.

Back

Official Statistics

Card 3

Front

A questionnaire that asks a sample of people which crimes have been committed against them over a fixed period of time and whether or not they have been reported to the police.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A self-report measure that requires people to record the number and type of crime that they have committed over a specific period.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An analytical tool that is intended to help investigators accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminals.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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