Families and households

  • Created by: Robin2002
  • Created on: 11-01-19 10:59
Engles (marxist)
the family evolved to serve the needs of capitalism, rise of private property means fathers can pass down wealth
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Functions of the family (marxist)
reproducing labour power, consuming products of capitalism, providing emotional support, socialising.
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Criticisms (marxism)
too deterministic, too negative, very dated, blames capitalism, ignores women and role of patriarchy.
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Murdock (functionalism)
nuclear family exists in some form in every society, family is essential and performs vital functions: sexual, reproductive, economic, education. ‘Men provide, women serve’.
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Parsons (functionalist)
structural differentiation, in industrial society some family functions taken over by specialised institutions. Two ‘basic and irreducible’ functions: primary socialisation, stabilisation of adult personalities . expressive and instrumental
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Criticisms (functionalist)
oo positive, ignores diversity, disadvantages women, too deterministic.
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Nuclear family (new right)
is the only correct type of family and the decline of the traditional family is the cause of many social problems because family is the cornerstone of society. The male is the breadwinner and female is homemaker, segregated conjugal roles best
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The Underclass (new right)
government policy is undermining the family as a reliance of welfare state produces family breakdown, a dependency culture and undermines traditional gender roles (especially single parent families)
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Non-nuclear families (new right)
children from broken homes 5x more likely to have emotional problems, 3x more likely to become aggressive or badly behaved, 9x more likely to become young offenders. Lone-parent families more than 2x as likely to live in poverty.
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Criticisms (new right)
exaggerate decline of nuclear family and extent of cohabiting single parents, gender roles oppressive to women, most single parents are not welfare scroungers.
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Mirrlees-Black criticisms (feminism)
ignores positive aspects, ignores gender equality trend, not all women are passive victims, ignores family diversity and ethnicity, 1 in 7 men are victims of domestic violence by a female partner
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Barrett + McIntosh (marxist feminist)
family serves as a tool to benefit capitalism, women doubly exploited, women are tools of capitalist state used to raise the next generation of workers
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Benston (marxist feminist)
“women are the slaves of wage slaves” women are used as cheap labour, keep the male fed, bring up the children and must be supported by husband therefore he cannot afford to strike or quit his job.
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Ansley (marxist feminist)
“women are the takers of ****” women soak up mens frustration which he cannot express at work. Without privatised family, man would bond together and turn anger into revolution.
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Firestone (radical feminist)
the family is a tool to serve men and oppress women. Gender roles based on biological reasoning are used to help men remain in control.
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Delphy + Leonard (radical feminist)
the female provides emotional labour. Women do unpaid work in the household even when working outside full time and make the main contribution the the family .however men receive the main benefits.
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Economic dependency
married women economically dependent on husbands. In most couples the wife gives up work to care for the children then begins working part-time instead of full to keep up the housework and childcare
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the family is male dominated, wives are economically dependent, men control decision making, sometimes use force to keep control.
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Hopkins (radical feminist)
around 570,000 cases of domestic violence committed by a man to a woman are reported each year. More go unreported.
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March of progress (liberal feminist)
Do not oppose marriage however do campaign for changes to improve women's lives such as maternity leave, childcare centres, education equality, job training, reproductive control, attitudes to gender roles, media stereotyping, sexist language.
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Postmodern society
society is in a new chaotic stage and is no longer predictable and orderly, family structure is varied and there is more freedom of choice. Family life has become very diverse there is no longer, one dominant family type or possibility to generalise
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Two main characteristics of postmodern society
Diversity and fragmentation - society increasingly fragmented, broad diversity of subcultures, people create their identity.Rapid social change - new technology is transforming lives, dissolving barriers, changing work/leisure, life less predictable
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Carol Smart (personal life)
strongly influenced by interactionist ideas and contrasts with structural theories. In order to understand families we must start with the point of view of individuals.
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Two criticisms of structural perspectives
they assume that the nuclear family is dominant and ignores increased diversity. They are all structural theories that assume families and their members are passive puppets manipulated by society to perform certain functions.
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Parsons (symmetrical family)
biological differences mean men and women have different roles. Either instrumental (male) or expressive (female) and division of labour should be sorted in this way with the men being the breadwinner and the woman being the homemaker
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Bott (symmetrical family)
two types of conjugal roles within marriage, segregated and joint. Segregated is based on the roles in Parsons theory whereas in a join conjugal marriage the couple share tasks and spend leisure time together.
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Willmott + Young (symmetrical family)
pattern of segregated conjugal roles however they see gradual trend towards symmetrical family but conjugal roles still not same, symmetrical family privatised (no need support from extended family, leisure time spent at home, couple have close bond
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Development of the symmetrical family
more women work therefore have more power in the relationship. Contraception more widespread therefore smaller families and increased focus on the marriage. Home became more attractive place to spend time in.
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Oakley (housework)
family is patriarchal and is the root of women's oppression. More men in middle classes are doing some housework than working classes but neither have a high level of participation therefore no real equality. Men take over pleasureable tasks
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Mostly women Not real work Unpaid Low status Average 77hr week Fragmented Lonely Their responsibility Identification with label higher standards Role models Not masculine
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Gershuny (women at work)
trend towards equality shown by a gradual increase of housework performed by men especially when woman in full time employment (double). Wives that worked full time still doing 73% housework compared to 83%. Social values changing
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Sullivan (women at work)
increase in number of couples with an equal division of labour and men doing the feminine parts of housework
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Ferri + Smith (women at work)
dual burden. Increased employment of women had little impact on division of labour.
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Duncombe + Marsden (womenat work)
triple shift. Housework, outside work, emotional work.
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Social class differences (women at work)
middle class women can afford childcare and cleaners, working class women trapped in a cycle of childcare responsibilities and low paid work as well as a greater burden of domestic jobs
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Man-Yee Kan (women at work - class differences)
better paid, younger, better educated women did less housework.
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Arber + Ginn (women at work - class difference
middle class women more likely to afford labour saving devices to reduce domestic burden
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Gershuny (women at work- cultural differences)
couples whose parents had a more equal relationship were more likely to share housework equally. Parental role models are important in establishing new norms.
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Man-Yee Kan (women at work- cultural differences)
younger men do more domestic work. Most men claimed to do more housework than their fathers and women less than their mothers. Generational shift occurring.
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British Social Attitudes Survey (women at work- cultural differences)
less than 10% of under 35s agreed with traditional division of labour compared with 30% of over 65s. Long term shift in values
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Willmott + Young (decisions)
women had more say as they moved into paid work and earning power increased.
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Edgell (decisions)
important decisions either taken by the husband or jointly with the husband having the final say. Could be because men earn more money so feel they should decide what happens with large parts of it.
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Pahl + Vogler (decisions)
Pooling and Allowance system as control over income. Large increase in pooling and sharp decline in allowance system. Pooling more common when both partners work full time however even here the man made the major financial decisions .
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Leighton (decisions)
power to make decisions changed when the male became unemployed, working wives often took over responsibility of bills and budget cuts.
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Dunne (changing gender roles)
Gender scripts in hetero marriages continue unequality. Lesbian couples more evidence of symmetry (describe relationship as equal, share housework/childcare, equal importance on each career, view childcare positively)
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Burghes (changing gender roles)
role of fathers is changing, they play a greater role in childcare and emotional development. The emergence of the new man - males shed hyper masculine characteristics of earlier generations, more sensitive and take part in femenine tasks
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Beck (changing gender roles - postmodernism)
fathers can no longer rely on jobs as a sense of fulfillment so look to their children for purpose and identity however they still do not play a large role in childcare.
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Giddens (changing gender roles - postmodernism)
family has been transformed by greater choice and equality, couple are now free to define relationships themselves (don't have to marry) and don't have to conform to gender scripts
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Domestic violence statistics
7% women victims in past year Women make up 89% of all those who have experienced at least 4 incidents Women 4x more likely to be sexually assaulted than men 30% women experienced some form since 16 Men who abuse partners often abusive to children
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Dobash + Dobash (domestic violence)
violent incidents could be set off by what the husband sees as a challenge to authority, marriage legitimates violence against women by giving power and authority to the husband.
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Yearnshire (domestic violence)
victims may be unwilling to report. On average a woman suffers 35 assaults before reporting
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Cheal (domestic violence)
police and prosecutors unwilling to record, investigate or prosecute as they are not prepared to become involved in the family
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Radical feminist views (domestic violence)
Dobash findings evidence of patriarchy, all societies founded on its principles, family main source of women's oppression, men dominate women through domestic violence, this explains why most is by men. Fails to identify why certain women more prone
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Elliot (domestic violence)
most men oppose domestic violence, radical feminists fail to explain female violence. 18% of men have experienced domestic violence since the age of 16.
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Ansley (domestic violence - marxist feminist)
domestic violence is the product of capitalism, male workers are exploited so take their anger out on their wives. Explains why working class women are more likely to experience domestic abuse but fails to show why all workers arent violent
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Wagg (childhood)
“Childhood is a socially constructed...and should be distinguished from mere biological immaturity” The idea of childhood including length, treatment and behaviour are not universal therefore not natural.
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Benedict (childhood)
children in simpler, non-industrial societies are generally treated different from their modern western counterparts.
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Aries (childhood)
childhood is a relatively modern invention in Britain, children classed as “little adults” until the 19th century industrialisation. Parents didnt give children emotional attention; infant mortality high, worked long hours, children economic assets
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Aries (emergence of childhood)
modern childhood began to emerge from the 13th though really started during industrialisation. Children used as workers but the government introduced legislation to reduce child labour. Children separate from adult setting, had separate legal status
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Reasons for separation (childhood)
church worried about morality, education allows them to read Bible, humanitarian/saftey concerns, evidence of abuse and slavery, educated chilren provide numerate/literate workers
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Evaluation of Aries
used paintings to come to some conclusions which may not be reliable.
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Pollock (evaluation of Aries)
childhood did exist but it had a different definition. His work is valuable as it shows how childhood is socially constructed and how ideas about children and their social status has varied over time
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Cause of child-centred families
smaller families, shorter working week, social security system, paediatrics, parenting research, comulsary education, parental fears, economic market based on children, protection laws
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Postman (disappearing childhood)
Development of literacy created information hierarchy, children protected from adult matters sex/violence/money/death. TV destroys hierarchy makes information accessible. Increased child crime/teenage pregnancy due to over exposure of adult themes
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Opie (disappearing childhood)
childhood is not disappearing. After research into children’s games, rhymes and songs there is strong evidence of the continued existence of a separate children’s culture
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Buckingham (disappearing childhood)
effect on childhood due to adult themes on television but it is still a long way from disappearing. In modern western societies children and their preferences have become a major economic force and have a large effect on products being made.
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Lee (disappearing childhood)
Not disappearing, become more complex and there are new categories of childhood/adolescence. Children are dependent on their parents but in another sense are independent. Mass children’s market which they influence yet depend on parents’ purchasing
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The Bailey review
an independent review into the sexualisation and commercialisation of childhood. Commissioned by the government, it called on businesses and broadcasters to protect children.
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Letting children be children
condemned products that encourages children to grow up too fast, the government agreed with it's call to reduce street advertisement containing sexual imagery and to make it easier for parents to block all adult material
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Jenks (disappearing childhood - postmodern)
Childhood changing, used to be seen as adulthood preparation. distinction between childhood/adulthood blurred creating insecurity, reater importacnce on child/adult relationships as stability. adults keep the view children are vunerable
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March of progress (improving chilhood)
western childrens position improving, more valued/cared for/protected/educated/helalthcare/standard of living/chance of survival. family has become more child-centred
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Palmer (toxic childhood)
rapid technological advances/cultural changes damaged children’s physical/emotional/intellectual development. Cultural changes include junk food/computer games/intensive marketing to children/parents working long hrs/emphasis on testing in education
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Margo + Dixon (toxic childhood)
uk youth near the top of international league tables for obesity, self harm, drug and alcohol use, abuse, violence, early sexual experience and teenage pregnancies. The modern notion of childhood is under threat.
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The conflict view (improving childhood)
march of progress is too idealistic and ignores important qualities; opportunities and risks faced, some children remain unprotected, children experience greater control , oppression and dependency not care and protection.
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Controls over children
spaces, time, bodies, access to resources
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class inequalities
poor mothers more likely to have low birth-weight babies.
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Woodroffe (class inequalities)
children of unskilled manual workers 3x as likely to be hyperactive and 4x as likely to experience conduct disorders.
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Howard (class inequalities)
children in poor families are more likely to die in childhood or suffer illness, to be shorter, fall behind in school and placed under the child protection register.
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Margo (class inequalities)
richer parents can afford more goods and leisure activities. Poorer children more likely to spend time with friends or watching TV
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Brannen (ethnicity inequalities)
asian parents more likely to be strict with their teenage daughters
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neglect and abuse (legal controls)
1 in 5 children had been severely maltreated in childhood, majority coming from parent/guardian. 1 in 5 school girls experience sexual abuse in uniform
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Womack (unhappy children)
Britain’s children are unhappiest in the West. Family breakdown is a considerable cause with ⅓ of 16 year olds living away from their biological fathers. Modern digital age cited as a major cause of unhappiness
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Gittins (paranoid parents)
age patriarchy, excessive adult domination. Children’s behaviour is in resistance to the age patriarchy, they are doing things adults do that children aren’t supposed to. Critics argue control is justified as children cannot make rational decistions
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Furedi (paranoid parents)
children are getting less exercise and independence due to parents safety concerns
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new sociology of childhood
There is a danger that children are viewed as passive objects shaped by external forces.
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smart (new sociology of childhood)
we should start to examine childhood from the point of view of children themselves while they are living through it. Children are often an active part of divorce and involved in trying to repair the relationship instead of being passive victims.
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Tipper (new sociology of childhood)
children create their own definitions of childhood
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Birth rate (trend)
dramatic fall from 28 per 1000 (1902) to 13 per 1000 (2012). 3 baby booms; 2 ww’s and 60’s economic prosperity
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Birth rate (effects)
household size halved in last 100yrs, more dual earners and higher standards of living, decrease dependency ratio, decreasing in child public services, child-centered family
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Birth rate (reasons)
family planning, compulsory education, position of women, declined infant mortality, mobile labor force, changing values (individualisation)
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Death rate (trend)
decline since 1870 however there have been fluctuations, 1918 (flu epidemic) 1940s (war), continued fall since 1950s. 19 per 1000 (1900) to 9 per 1000 (2012)
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Death rate (reasons)
infectious diseases, improved nutrition, public health and housing, welfare measures, medical advances, social change
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Ageing population (reasons)
increased life expectancy, declining infant mortality/declining birth rate. Percentage of population over 65 has risen to 17% (2012)
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Ageing population (effects)
public services, housing, dependency ratio, policy implications, impacts on the family
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structured dependency (ageism)
old are excluded from paid work leaving them dependent of family or the state, stigmatised due to dependency.
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Phillipson (ageism)
the old are of no use to capitalism as they are no longer productive, the state is unwilling to properly support them so the burden falls on family
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Postmodern (ageism)
fixed life stages broken down/boundaries blurred. people free to choose lifestyles/identities. old become market for consumer goods to help breakdown stereotypes/stigmas
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Pilcher (ageism)
inequalities among the elderly are still important, may be related to the individual's previous occupation. Two main inequalities are class and gender. Postmodernists understate importance of elderly discrimination; class and gender
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Class inequalities (ageism)
middle class have better occupational pensions and greater savings, poorer elderly have shorter life expectancy (more difficult to remain youthful)
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gender inequalities (ageism)
women's lower earnings and career breaks means lower pensions, also subject to sexist ageist stereotyping.
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global interconnectedness (globalisation)
disappearing barriers means more people’s lives connected with far away places, developments in; travel and tourism/consumer goods/culture/technology/communications means world has more connections/influences. Causes mass migration wealthy people
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effects (globalisation)
more immigration, more undocumented workers, more asylum seekers, greater cultural diversity, changing families.
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assimilation (political impacts - globalisation)
first state policy approach to immigration, encouraged immigrants to adopt the language, values and customs. Usually failed due to desire to keep aspects of their culture of origin.
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multiculturalism (political impacts - globalisation)
accepts migrants may wish to retain separate culture, emergence of multicultural education however this may encourage ‘shallow diversity’ where we accept surface elements of other cultures but not the deeper parts
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Acceleration (migration)
rapidly increasing rate, increase of 33% between 2000 and 2013.
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Differentiation (migration)
before 90s only migrants from former british colonies created small ethnic communities, since 90s been “super migration” many different status’/cultures/religions within single ethnic group widely dispersed
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Cohen (migration)
class differences among migrants; citizens (full citizenship), denizens (privileged and welcomed), helots (exploited, low paid manual workers)
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Feminism (migration)
half all migrants women, care/domestic/sex work mainly done by women from poorer countries, western women joining labor force/lack of state childcare means many migrant women providing childcare at expense of own children
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Traditional identities (migration)
more diverse migrant patterns, less permanent settlement, migrants are less likely to identify with one culture.
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Divorce (trend)
6 divorces per 1000 married population (1971) increased to 10.8 (2012), ⅕ being 2nd or 3rd divorces. Creates lone-parent families, one-person households and the possibility of reconstituted families
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Divorce (reasons)
legislation, changing attitudes, rising expectations, position of women, tensions of family life, individualisation and the pure relationship
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New right concerns of divorce (lone-parent families)
divorce creating female-headed one parent families which is a threat to society. Children grow up without discipline and go on to commit crime, experience more poverty, poor housing, and underachievement.
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Marriage (trend)
increase between 1860 and 1970, dramatic drop since then
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Marriage (reasons)
changing attitudes, position of women, fear of divorce, individualisaton thesis and the pure relationship
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Cohabitation (trend)
6.5% of people over 16 cohabiting (1996) increased to 11.7% (2012)
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Cohabitation (reasons)
decline in stigma related to sex outside of marriage, women no longer economically dependent, secularisation
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Chester (cohabitation)
cohabitation is part of the process of getting married, many see it as a trial marriage and is usually a temporary phase.
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Permanent alternative (cohabitation)
may be an attempt to make a more equal relationship that is personally negotiated instead of the norm of a patriarchal marriage. Cohabitation does not mean the same thing to everyone.
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New Right (cohabitation)
cohabitation more fragile than marriage and is a poor alternative. Married couples are more likely to work on problems that arise.
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same-sex couples
about 5% of the adult population have same-sex relationships. From 2014 same-sex couples could legally marry but before this (from 2004) they could get a civil partnership.
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one-person households (trend)
1 in 3 households contain only one person, 1 in 20 (1901). Under half these are of pensionable age, over ⅔ (1971) shows growth in young people living alone.
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one-person households (reasons)
general reasons (choice/only option/temporary) living apart together (1in10 couple), singlehood/marriage/divorce, jobs/money/mobility
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single-parent families (trend)
number with dependent children has tripled from 1961 to 1998. A third to a half of all children will spend some time in a single-parent family. 90% are headed by women, teenage mothers make up only 3%.
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single-parent families (reasons)
divorce or separation (53%), death of partner (6%), unplanned pregnancy
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New right concerns with single-parent families
lone-parent families are at the heart of the underclass and socialising children into dependency culture. Child Support Agency (absent fathers must pay for child support) set up to provide for high costs lone-parent families cause to welfare state
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Chester (single-parent families)
ideology of nuclear family has caused negative labelling of one-parent families which may result in a “self-fulfilling prophecy”.
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parsons (extended family)
no place for extended family today as it does not fit the needs of an industrial society such as a geographically mobile workforce. However research shows that the survival of the extended family in working-class communities.
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Modified extended family
come together in family events and provide support in times of need. Improved communication means long distance contact is easier.
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classic extended family
several nuclear families joined by kinship that live in the same area horizontally/vertically extended, survives in two communities; traditional working class however there has been decline since 1980; and some ethnic minority groups.
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Beanpole family
extended horizontally and not vertically. Increased life expectancy (more surviving grandparents) and smaller family size (fewer siblings).
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Cereal packet family
full time mother fulfilling the expressive role married (for the first time) to the father as the breadwinner. This image is ideologized and fostered by advertisers defines what is normal/desirable, labelling alternative family forms as undesirable
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Chester (family diversity)
extent of family diversity is exaggerated, majority of people will spend most of their lives looking for or in a nuclear family. Only important change is conventional nuclear family becoming a neo-conventional nuclear family
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The Rapoports (family diversity)
five types of family diversity, the way the new nuclear family is structured; organisational diversity (roles and responsibilities), cultural diversity, class diversity, life-stage diversity, generational diversity.
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Giddens (postmodern)
family has been transformed by greater choice; contraception (sex is not just about reproduction) and independence of women due to greater work opportunities
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Stacey (postmodern)
family diversity reflects modern society, there are no generally agreed norms and values. Divorce-extended family (members connected by divorce rather than marriage).
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Beck (postmodern)
new type of family has replaced the patriarchal family. The negotiated family varies according to individual wishes and expectations of its members, caused by greater gender equality and individualisation
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Beck-Gernsheim (postmodern)
two major causes of individualisation; contraception (sex and reproduction are separate) and equality of women (higher expectations). It is no longer clear who or what is part of the family.
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Giddens (the pure relationship)
traditional values dont hold relationships together, they are based on individual choice and equality. The pure relationship satisfies each partner’s needs, survives only as long as it is doing that. With more choice relationships become less stable
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Smart (criticisms of individualisation thesis)
exaggerates extent of family decline and personal connections, thesis is entirely theoretical and is not based on any actual research.
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Chambers (criticisms of individualisation thesis)
most people still make choices based on their culture, the thesis is based mainly on middle class white British
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personal life perspective (criticises structural perspectives)
they assume that the nuclear family is still dominant and ignore diversity, they assume family members are passive puppets.
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smart (personal life perspective)
rejects the idea that family life is declining, looks at family in a more complex way (heritage, bonds, family secrets) and considers things that other perspectives don’t.
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connectedness thesis
criticises personal life, gender and sexuality still affect relationships.
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criticisms of personal life perspective
too broad, ignores value of blood/marriage relationships.
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functionalist (social policy - view)
the state is acting in the interest of society, policies help families perform their functions more effectively.
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fletcher (functionalist - social policy)
introduction of health, education and housing policies in the years since the industrial revolution has gradually lead to the development of a welfare state that supports the family in performing its functions.
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criticisms of functionalists (social policy)
it assumes all family members benefit from social policies, assumes there is a march of progress and social policies are making family life better.
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marxist (social policy - view)
social policies serve capitalism. They do not accept a march of progress towards better welfare policies creating happier families. Improvements in working-class families have only been won through class struggle and can easily be lost again.
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Foucault (concept of surveillance)
observing/monitoring control behaviour/power, power not just held by government, it is spread through society and in professionals in particular who exercise power over their clients using knowledge to turn them into cases to be dealt with
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Donzelot (policing of families)
applies surveillance concept to family, state exercises form of surveillance/control over families. Social workers/health visitors/doctors use knowledge to control/change families. Surveillance not equal on all classes, poor targeted for improvement
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Condry (policing of families)
the state may seek to control and regulate families by imposing compulsory Parenting Orders for parents of badly behaved children to learn the ‘correct’ way to bring up a child.
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criticisms of policing of families
it is unclear who benefits from this state control
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Feminist (social policy - view)
society is patriarchal and social institutions (including the state and it's policies) help to maintain women's subordinate position and the unequal gender division.
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Land (feminist - social policy)
policies assume the ideal family is the patriarchal nuclear family, this norm affects the kind of policies governing family life which then reinforce existing patriarchal roles.
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policies supporting the traditional patriarchal family
tax and benefit, childcare, care for sick and elderly, housing
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Leonard (feminism - social policy)
even where policies seem to support women, they may still reinforce the patriarchal family and act as social control over women
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criticisms of feminism (social policy)
not all policies are directed at maintaining the patriarchy such as equal pay, sex discrimination laws, benefits for lone parents, refuges for women escaping domestic violence and equal rights to divorce
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conclusion (social policy)
government policies are increasingly recognising the realities of family life and family diversity however both Labour and Conservative Parties see the nuclear family as the ideal family type.
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New Right (social policy - view)
policies should avoid anything that might undermine the ‘natural’ self-reliant nuclear family. Policy should be changed, especially around the welfare/benefits system, to support traditional nuclear family. Less state inference in family better
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Criticisms of other government policies (new right)
welfare weakens family self-reliance/creates dependency culture, divorce undermines marriage, civil partnerships show state doesnt think heteros superior, tax laws discriminate against families with sole breadwinner
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evaluation of new right (social policy)
feminists argue it is an attempt to justify a return of the patriarchal family. Wrongly assumes this type of family is ‘natural’. Cutting benefits would drive poor families into further poverty. Ignores the many policies that support nuclear family
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New right influence (60s)
Talked about ‘golden age’ of family, painted idealistic picture of family, lamented demise of traditional family, think other family types threat to society. Declined nuclear family lead to social problems/moral decay, demonised lone-parent families
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New right influence (80s/90s)
associated with the conservative government, Thatchers aim was to return to family values and support the family.
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new right influence (social policies)
benefits withdrawn from 16-18 year olds forced families to take responsibility of unemployed teens. Policies supporting ‘community care’ of elderly instead of institutions. Tax policies changed so cohabiting couples didn't have advantage over married
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contradicting policies (new right influence)
divorce made easier. Illegitimate children given the same rights as those born within marriage. Extra benefits payable to single parents increased.
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criticisms (new right influence - social policy)
Thatcher wanted to reduce public spending, maintaining traditional family secondary, financial cuts undermined family (freezing of child benefits). 90s saw policies helped womens rights (marital **** illegal/child support agency, violence attention)
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New labour
continued to idealise nuclear families but did accept families had changed so introduced policies to help them. Policies focus on money and work parents have responsibility to work. state intervention can improve family life/promote family diversity
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Coalition government
modernists (families are more diverse) and traditionalists (favour a New Right view) brought together however the traditionalist Conservative government found it difficult to maintain a consistent policy line due to the influence of the modernists
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


reproducing labour power, consuming products of capitalism, providing emotional support, socialising.


Functions of the family (marxist)

Card 3


too deterministic, too negative, very dated, blames capitalism, ignores women and role of patriarchy.


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Card 4


nuclear family exists in some form in every society, family is essential and performs vital functions: sexual, reproductive, economic, education. ‘Men provide, women serve’.


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Card 5


structural differentiation, in industrial society some family functions taken over by specialised institutions. Two ‘basic and irreducible’ functions: primary socialisation, stabilisation of adult personalities . expressive and instrumental


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