Eukaryotic Cells and Organelles

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What is the nucleus?
A large, membrane-bound organelle
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What is the nucleus' function?
It contains the genetic material in the DNA and other proteins; it controls protein synthesis; it will always divide before the cell itself will
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What is the nucleolus?
An area of dense chromatin in the nucleus; it has a granular structure and it's not membrane bound
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What is the nuceolus' function?
It makes rRNA and assembles ribosomes
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What is the (cellulose) cell wall?
It's the rigid structure that surrounds the plant cell
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What is the cell wall's function?
It helps to maintain the cell's shape and supports it
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What is the plasma (cell surface) membrane?
Membrane found on the surface of human/animal cells and just inside the cell wall in plants; made of lipids and proteins
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What is the plasma (cell surface) membrane's function?
It regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell; it has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals (e.g. hormones)
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What is chromatin?
It's DNA wrapped around proteins called histones
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What is chromatin's function?
To package DNA into a smaller volume to fit into the cell
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What is the vacuole?
A large, membrane-bound sac
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What is the vacuole's function?
To store water and solutes;maintain the cell's turgidity
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What is a ribosome?
A very small organelle that floats free in the cytoplasm/is attached to RER; made of protein and RNA; has no membrane;has two subunits
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What is the ribosome's function?
It's the site of protein synthesis; where mRNA is read and used to assemble amino acids
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What is a chloroplast?
A small,flattened structure;has a double membrane; inner layer is continuous and forms flattened
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What is a chloroplast's function?
A small,flattened structure;has a double membrane; membranes are stacked in some parts (grana) Grana are linked together by lamellae
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What is a mitochondrion?
Formed from 2 membranes; inner membrane folds to form cristae; inside is the matrix which contains enzymes which are involved in respiration
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What is the mitochondria's function?
It't the site of aerobic respiration where ATP is formed
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ATP
They're found in large numbers in cells that need lots of energy like muscle cells
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What is the RER?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Flattened sacs called cisternae; continuous with the outer nuclear membrane; studded with ribosomes
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What is the RER's function?
Ribosomes make protein which is transported to within the ER's cisternae; some of the proteins are secreted by the cell, others are used by the cell
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Card 2

Front

What is the nucleus' function?

Back

It contains the genetic material in the DNA and other proteins; it controls protein synthesis; it will always divide before the cell itself will

Card 3

Front

What is the nucleolus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the nuceolus' function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the (cellulose) cell wall?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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