Eukaryotic Cells

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Nucleolus
Responsible for producing ribosomes. Composed of proteins and RNA which is used to produce rRNA which is combined with proteins forming ribosomes necessary for protein synthesis.
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Mitochondria
Energy stored in bonds of complex. Has double membrane. Inner membrane is folded forming cristae, membrane contains enzymes used in aerobic respiration. Fluid interior is called the matrix. Mitochondria contain small amount of (mt)DNA
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Vesicles
Membranous sacs that have storage and transport roles. They consist of a single membrane with a fluid inside. They transport materials inside cells.
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Microfilaments (Cytoskeleton)
Contractile fibres form protein called actin which is responsible for cell movement and contraction during cytokinesis.
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Nucleus
Contains genetic information in form of DNA molecules. DNA directs synthesis of proteins. DNA is contained within double membrane (nuclear envelope) which has pores to allow RNA molecules to exit the nucleus.
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Lysosomes
Specialised vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes which break down waste material, old organelles and bacteria.
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Cytoskeleton
Network of fibres necessary for shape/stability. It holds organelles in place and controls cell movement and movement of organelles within cells.
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Flagella
Longer than cilia and primarily enable cell motility. In some cells they're used as sensory organelles detecting chemical changes in cell's environment.
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Intermediate Fibres (Cytoskeleton)
Gives mechanical strength to cells and help maintain their integrity.
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Centrioles
Component of cytoskeleton. Composed of microtubules. Two centrioles form centrosome (organisation of spindle fibres). In organisms with cilia and flagella, centrioles position these structures. Not present in flowering plants and most fungi.
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Cilia
Stationary cilia are present on many cell's surfaces and have important function in sensory organs. Mobile cilia beat in rhythmic manner causing movement of fluid. Each cilium contains 2 central microtubules surrounded by 9 pairs of microtubules.
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Microtubules (Cytoskeleton)
Globular tubulin proteins polymerise, forming tubes that form scaffold like structure that determines the shape of the cell. it also acts as tracks for movement of organelles including vesicles around cell. Spindle fibres are composed of microtubules
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has ribosomes bound to surface and is responsible for synthesis and transport of proteins.
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Ribosomes
Free floating in cytoplasm or attached to ER. Constructed of RNA. Site of protein synthesis. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes as do prokaryotic cells.
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Golgi Apparatus
Compact Structure formed of cistern and doesn't contain ribosomes. Modifies proteins and packages them into vesicles. These may be secretory vesicles if proteins are destined to leave the cell, or lysosomes which stay in the cell.
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Vacuole (Plant)
Membrane lined sacs in cytoplasm containing cell sap. Importance in maintenance of turgor. Membrane of vacuole in plant cell is called tonoplast, it's selectively permeable. Vacuoles in animal cells are not permanent, whereas they are in plant cells.
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Chloroplast
Responsible for photosynthesis. Double membrane structure. Fluid enclosed in chloroplast is called storm. Internal network of membranes forms flattened sacs called thylakoids. When stacked up they're called a granum. The grana contain chlorophyll.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Responsible for lipid and carbohydrate synthesis and storage.
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Card 2

Front

Energy stored in bonds of complex. Has double membrane. Inner membrane is folded forming cristae, membrane contains enzymes used in aerobic respiration. Fluid interior is called the matrix. Mitochondria contain small amount of (mt)DNA

Back

Mitochondria

Card 3

Front

Membranous sacs that have storage and transport roles. They consist of a single membrane with a fluid inside. They transport materials inside cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Contractile fibres form protein called actin which is responsible for cell movement and contraction during cytokinesis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contains genetic information in form of DNA molecules. DNA directs synthesis of proteins. DNA is contained within double membrane (nuclear envelope) which has pores to allow RNA molecules to exit the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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