English language B A01

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proper nouns
the name of a person or a place
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abstract nouns
feelings and ideas (cannot perceive them with senses)
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concrete nouns
can be perceived with senses
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collective nouns
a collection/group
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possessive pronouns
indicate possession - mine, yours, etc.
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reflexive pronouns
relate to a person - myself, himself, etc.
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comparative adjectives
used to compare ('more' or '-er')
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adjectives/adverbs which express the highest/very high degree of quality
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dynamic verbs
express activities/changes of state
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stative verbs
describe a state
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material verbs
describe action/events
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relational verbs
describe states of being
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modal verbs
express necessity/possibility (should, would, might, could, etc.)
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irregular verbs
it cannot be made past tense by adding '-ed'
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dummy auxiliary
'do' - used to form questions and negatives or do add emphasis
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the smallest grammatical unit, either a root or an affix
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root morpheme
a morpheme that can stand on its own as a word
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head word
the central word in a phrase which gives the phrase its name (e.g. noun phrase, adjective phrase) and may be modified by other words
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a group of words centred around a verb, which may be either grammatically complete (main clause) or incomplete (subordinate clause).
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active voice
a clause where the agent (doer) of an action is the subject
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passive voice
a clause where the patient (the entity affected by an action) is in the subject position, and the agent either follows or is left out
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how the time of an event is marked (usually through verb inflection): past, present & future.
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passive voice
a clause where the patient (the entity affected by an action) is in the subject position, and the agent either follows or is left out
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another element of marking the time of an event, by specifying whether they are progressive (ongoing) or perfective (completed)
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a larger unit of meaning, which may be formed of a single clause (simple sentence) or several clauses (compound or complex sentences)
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an implied meaning that has to be inferred as a result of a conversational maxim being broken
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the awareness of others’ needs to be approved of and liked (positive politeness) and/or given freedom to express their own identity and choices (negative politeness)
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discourse markers
words, phrases or clauses that help to organise what we say or write (e.g. OK, So, “As I was saying…”)
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non-essential elements of clauses (usually adverbials) that can be omitted (e.g. “I’ll see you in the morning”)
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sentence adverbs that work to express an attitude or stance towards material that follows (eg “Frankly, I’m appalled at what she said” or “Sadly, not one of them survived”)
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narrative structures
how events, actions and processes are sequenced when recounting a story
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anaphoric reference
making reference back to something previously identified in a text (often using pronouns to refer to an already established reference point eg “The woman stood by the door. She made detailed notes of what she could see”)
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cataphoric reference
making reference forwards to something as yet unidentified in a text. Eg “It was warm. It was living. It was Uncle George
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exophoric reference
making reference to things beyond the language of a text itself (as opposed to endophoric, which is within the language of the text), perhaps within a speaker’s immediate physical context e.g. “Look at that”
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narrative structures
how events, actions and processes are sequenced when recounting a story
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the use of discourses from one field as part of another (eg the use of science discourses in the selling of beauty products, or the use of commercial discourses in education)
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a variety (or style) of language that is associated with a particular situation of use. Registers may be either written, spoken or multimodal
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how experiences, views and ideas are ‘re-presented’ to readers, listeners and viewers through language and other meaning-making resources in order to influence their way of seeing the world
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semantic change
the process of words changing meaning, including the following: narrowing, broadening, amelioration, pejoration, semantic reclamation
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semantic fields
groups of words connected by a shared meaning
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simple sentence
one independent clause
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compund sentence
two or more independent clauses
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complex sentence
one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
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compund-complex sentence
two or more independent clauses, one or more dependent clauses
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independent clause
is a group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence: it has a subject, a verb, and is a complete thought. Examples: He ran.
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dependent clause
is a group of words with a subject and a verb. It does not express a complete thought so it is not a sentence and can't stand alone. These clauses include adverb clauses, adjective clauses and noun clauses.
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subordinate clause
typically introduced by a conjunction, that forms part of and is dependent on a main clause (e.g. ‘when it rang’ in ‘she answered the phone when it rang’).
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object pronoun
a pronoun that usually appears by being affected by a verb process: you, us, him, her...
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part participle
the '-ed' form of a verb
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giving human qualities to non-human objects
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present participle
the '-ing' form of a verb
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modal verb
these can be only used with an auxiliary verb, expressing possibility: might, could, may
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word/phrase used to imply figurative language, not literal sense
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mental verb
non-observable actions
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material verb
observable actions
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regular verb
verbs which change their form according to a fixed pattern
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a pattern of repeated fricative sounds for effect
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relative/interrogative pronoun
used after a noun to tell us what is spoken about (who, whom, which)
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describing something as being like or as something else
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subject pronoun
a pronoun which is the subject of a verb (he, she, we)
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replacing one set of lexical items with another (I want ice cream - I want that one)
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adjectives inflected with '-est'
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a word that means the same as another word
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form used to address a person, usually in the form of a personal name, title, or term of endearment
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placing two contrasting images or idea side by side
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adverbs or adverbial phrases to show emphasis: absolutely, completely...
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an addition to the end of a word to change its function/tense
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inflectional morphology
affixes to show the tense of verbs and plural form of nouns
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specific word within a category (rose)
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a superordinate - or an umbrella word that can have lots of more specific words under it (flower)
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exaggerating something, which is not to be taken literally
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free morpheme
an unit of a word that can stand alone as an independent word (chair)
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emotive language
language that arouses the emotions of the reader or listener
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a version of language associated with people from a particular region
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some, many
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indefinite article
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definite article
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derivational morphology
affixes which help to form a new word, often changing the word class (personal - personally)
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demonstrative pronoun
this, that, these, those...
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lexis items that point towards something and place words in context (this, that, these, those)
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deictic expression
words or phrases that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information
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links words together (but, so, and)
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comparative adjective
comparing two items (smaller, faster)
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bound morpheme
a unit of a word that cannot stand alone and instead has the function of changing a words tense or meaning (chairS, chairED)
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auxiliary verb
verbs which can help the main verb by changing the tense, person, or number (is, are, was, have)
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repeating a particular sound at the start of a series of words
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adverbial clause
a subordinate clause that functions as an adverbial (Luckily, he saw her heading his way)
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a word that modifies a verb (often end with letter 'y')
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


feelings and ideas (cannot perceive them with senses)


abstract nouns

Card 3


can be perceived with senses


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


a collection/group


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


indicate possession - mine, yours, etc.


Preview of the back of card 5
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