English language B A01

HideShow resource information
proper nouns
the name of a person or a place
1 of 93
abstract nouns
feelings and ideas (cannot perceive them with senses)
2 of 93
concrete nouns
can be perceived with senses
3 of 93
collective nouns
a collection/group
4 of 93
possessive pronouns
indicate possession - mine, yours, etc.
5 of 93
reflexive pronouns
relate to a person - myself, himself, etc.
6 of 93
comparative adjectives
used to compare ('more' or '-er')
7 of 93
superlatives
adjectives/adverbs which express the highest/very high degree of quality
8 of 93
dynamic verbs
express activities/changes of state
9 of 93
stative verbs
describe a state
10 of 93
material verbs
describe action/events
11 of 93
relational verbs
describe states of being
12 of 93
modal verbs
express necessity/possibility (should, would, might, could, etc.)
13 of 93
irregular verbs
it cannot be made past tense by adding '-ed'
14 of 93
dummy auxiliary
'do' - used to form questions and negatives or do add emphasis
15 of 93
morpheme
the smallest grammatical unit, either a root or an affix
16 of 93
root morpheme
a morpheme that can stand on its own as a word
17 of 93
head word
the central word in a phrase which gives the phrase its name (e.g. noun phrase, adjective phrase) and may be modified by other words
18 of 93
clause
a group of words centred around a verb, which may be either grammatically complete (main clause) or incomplete (subordinate clause).
19 of 93
active voice
a clause where the agent (doer) of an action is the subject
20 of 93
passive voice
a clause where the patient (the entity affected by an action) is in the subject position, and the agent either follows or is left out
21 of 93
tense
how the time of an event is marked (usually through verb inflection): past, present & future.
22 of 93
passive voice
a clause where the patient (the entity affected by an action) is in the subject position, and the agent either follows or is left out
23 of 93
aspect
another element of marking the time of an event, by specifying whether they are progressive (ongoing) or perfective (completed)
24 of 93
sentence
a larger unit of meaning, which may be formed of a single clause (simple sentence) or several clauses (compound or complex sentences)
25 of 93
declaratives
statements
26 of 93
interrogatives
questions
27 of 93
imperatives
commands
28 of 93
exclamatives
exclamation
29 of 93
implicature
an implied meaning that has to be inferred as a result of a conversational maxim being broken
30 of 93
politeness
the awareness of others’ needs to be approved of and liked (positive politeness) and/or given freedom to express their own identity and choices (negative politeness)
31 of 93
discourse markers
words, phrases or clauses that help to organise what we say or write (e.g. OK, So, “As I was saying…”)
32 of 93
adjuncts
non-essential elements of clauses (usually adverbials) that can be omitted (e.g. “I’ll see you in the morning”)
33 of 93
disjuncts
sentence adverbs that work to express an attitude or stance towards material that follows (eg “Frankly, I’m appalled at what she said” or “Sadly, not one of them survived”)
34 of 93
narrative structures
how events, actions and processes are sequenced when recounting a story
35 of 93
anaphoric reference
making reference back to something previously identified in a text (often using pronouns to refer to an already established reference point eg “The woman stood by the door. She made detailed notes of what she could see”)
36 of 93
cataphoric reference
making reference forwards to something as yet unidentified in a text. Eg “It was warm. It was living. It was Uncle George
37 of 93
exophoric reference
making reference to things beyond the language of a text itself (as opposed to endophoric, which is within the language of the text), perhaps within a speaker’s immediate physical context e.g. “Look at that”
38 of 93
narrative structures
how events, actions and processes are sequenced when recounting a story
39 of 93
interdiscursivity
the use of discourses from one field as part of another (eg the use of science discourses in the selling of beauty products, or the use of commercial discourses in education)
40 of 93
register
a variety (or style) of language that is associated with a particular situation of use. Registers may be either written, spoken or multimodal
41 of 93
representation
how experiences, views and ideas are ‘re-presented’ to readers, listeners and viewers through language and other meaning-making resources in order to influence their way of seeing the world
42 of 93
semantic change
the process of words changing meaning, including the following: narrowing, broadening, amelioration, pejoration, semantic reclamation
43 of 93
semantic fields
groups of words connected by a shared meaning
44 of 93
simple sentence
one independent clause
45 of 93
compund sentence
two or more independent clauses
46 of 93
complex sentence
one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
47 of 93
compund-complex sentence
two or more independent clauses, one or more dependent clauses
48 of 93
independent clause
is a group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence: it has a subject, a verb, and is a complete thought. Examples: He ran.
49 of 93
dependent clause
is a group of words with a subject and a verb. It does not express a complete thought so it is not a sentence and can't stand alone. These clauses include adverb clauses, adjective clauses and noun clauses.
50 of 93
subordinate clause
typically introduced by a conjunction, that forms part of and is dependent on a main clause (e.g. ‘when it rang’ in ‘she answered the phone when it rang’).
51 of 93
object pronoun
a pronoun that usually appears by being affected by a verb process: you, us, him, her...
52 of 93
part participle
the '-ed' form of a verb
53 of 93
personification
giving human qualities to non-human objects
54 of 93
present participle
the '-ing' form of a verb
55 of 93
modal verb
these can be only used with an auxiliary verb, expressing possibility: might, could, may
56 of 93
metaphor
word/phrase used to imply figurative language, not literal sense
57 of 93
mental verb
non-observable actions
58 of 93
material verb
observable actions
59 of 93
regular verb
verbs which change their form according to a fixed pattern
60 of 93
sibilance
a pattern of repeated fricative sounds for effect
61 of 93
relative/interrogative pronoun
used after a noun to tell us what is spoken about (who, whom, which)
62 of 93
simile
describing something as being like or as something else
63 of 93
subject pronoun
a pronoun which is the subject of a verb (he, she, we)
64 of 93
substitution
replacing one set of lexical items with another (I want ice cream - I want that one)
65 of 93
superlative
adjectives inflected with '-est'
66 of 93
synonym
a word that means the same as another word
67 of 93
vocative
form used to address a person, usually in the form of a personal name, title, or term of endearment
68 of 93
juxtaposition
placing two contrasting images or idea side by side
69 of 93
intensifiers
adverbs or adverbial phrases to show emphasis: absolutely, completely...
70 of 93
inflection
an addition to the end of a word to change its function/tense
71 of 93
inflectional morphology
affixes to show the tense of verbs and plural form of nouns
72 of 93
hyponym
specific word within a category (rose)
73 of 93
hypernym
a superordinate - or an umbrella word that can have lots of more specific words under it (flower)
74 of 93
hyperbole
exaggerating something, which is not to be taken literally
75 of 93
free morpheme
an unit of a word that can stand alone as an independent word (chair)
76 of 93
emotive language
language that arouses the emotions of the reader or listener
77 of 93
dialect
a version of language associated with people from a particular region
78 of 93
quantifier
some, many
79 of 93
demonstratives
this
80 of 93
indefinite article
a
81 of 93
definite article
the
82 of 93
derivational morphology
affixes which help to form a new word, often changing the word class (personal - personally)
83 of 93
demonstrative pronoun
this, that, these, those...
84 of 93
deixis
lexis items that point towards something and place words in context (this, that, these, those)
85 of 93
deictic expression
words or phrases that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information
86 of 93
conjunction
links words together (but, so, and)
87 of 93
comparative adjective
comparing two items (smaller, faster)
88 of 93
bound morpheme
a unit of a word that cannot stand alone and instead has the function of changing a words tense or meaning (chairS, chairED)
89 of 93
auxiliary verb
verbs which can help the main verb by changing the tense, person, or number (is, are, was, have)
90 of 93
alliteration
repeating a particular sound at the start of a series of words
91 of 93
adverbial clause
a subordinate clause that functions as an adverbial (Luckily, he saw her heading his way)
92 of 93
adverb
a word that modifies a verb (often end with letter 'y')
93 of 93

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

feelings and ideas (cannot perceive them with senses)

Back

abstract nouns

Card 3

Front

can be perceived with senses

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a collection/group

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

indicate possession - mine, yours, etc.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all CLA and language change resources »