# Energy Balance

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• Created by: Becca
• Created on: 22-12-13 22:04
How many kJ in 1 kCal? What are the kCal & kJ per gram for carbohydrates, protein, fat & alcohol?
1 kCal = 4.184 kJ. CHOs: 4 kCal = 17 kJ. Protein: 4 kCal = 17kJ. Fat: 9 kCal = 37 kJ. Alcohol: 7 kCal = 29.5 kJ
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How do you estimate energy/nutrient intake?
Determine the amount of food eaten (weighed record, diar record, recall questions). Energy/nutrient content (direct analysis of food & urinary/***** loss, food composition). Bomb calorimeter (heat of food combustion measured from rise in water temp)
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What are the components of energy expenditure? What % of total energy expenditure do they count for?
BMR/RMR accounts of 60-70%. Energy expenditure of physical activity (EEA) accounts for 25-30%. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT, increase metabolic rate after meal) accounts for 10%
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What are the components of basal metabolic rate? What % of BMR do they count for?
Heart/respiratory functions (10%). Protein turnover (25%). Fat/CHO turnover. Maintenance of ion gradients across membranes
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What is the thermic effect of exercise & illness on EE (energy expenditure)/RMR?
Exercise: sedentary 10% of EE, athlete 15-30%. Illness: partial starvation -10-40% of RMR, post-operative +10%, multiple fractures +10-30%, severe infection +30-6-%, 3rd degree burns +50-100%
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What does indirect calorimetry measure?
Calculates the amount of energy expended by measuring the amount of oxygen utilized. 1L oxygen = 20 kJ or 5 kCal
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Define respiratory exchange ratio (RER)/respiratory quotient (RQ)
The ratio of the rate of carbon dioxide produced to the rate of oxygen uptake. RER = VCO2/VO2
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Why is the RER useful?
RER is a valuable indicator or substrate oxidation, that is the relative amounts of carbohydrate and fat being oxidized for energy production (CHO=1.0 RER, fat=0.7 RER)
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What can be measured to estimate body composition?
Body density (underwater weighing). Body water (use of isotope dilution). Electrical conductivity (bioelectrical impedance). Body fat (skinfold thickness, DEXA). Anthropometry (BMI, waist/hip ratio, weight/height/waist circumference)
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

How do you estimate energy/nutrient intake?

#### Back

Determine the amount of food eaten (weighed record, diar record, recall questions). Energy/nutrient content (direct analysis of food & urinary/***** loss, food composition). Bomb calorimeter (heat of food combustion measured from rise in water temp)

### Card 3

#### Front

What are the components of energy expenditure? What % of total energy expenditure do they count for?

### Card 4

#### Front

What are the components of basal metabolic rate? What % of BMR do they count for?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is the thermic effect of exercise & illness on EE (energy expenditure)/RMR?