Education - Sociologists

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  • Created on: 26-02-18 18:57
Durkheim (1903) - (Functionalist)
2 main functions of education: Creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills. Main purpose is to prevent crime and anomie.
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Parsons (1961) - Meritocracy (Functionalist)
Within the family children are judged by particularistic standards but in school they are judged by universalistic standards. They are taught to value achieved status over ascribed status.
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Davis and Moore (1945) - Role Allocation (Functionalist)
School sifts and sorts us according to our abilities. Inequality is necessary so that most important roles are filled by the most able as otherwise no-one would do w/c jobs.
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Blau and Duncan (1978) - (Marxist)
Modern economy depends for prosperity as using’ human capital’ ( people= money); so it makes use of the most talented and maximises productivity.
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Althusser (1961) - Ideological State Apparatus (ISA) - (Marxist)
2 elements - RSA (Repressive) maintains the rule of the bourgeoisie by force and the ISA maintains the rule by controlling people's beliefs and values.
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Bowles and Gintis (1976) - Correspondence Principle (Marxist)
Schools mirror the workplace, which operates through the hidden curriculum, which reproduces the class system.
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Willis (Neo-Marxist) - Learning to Labour
Studied 12 Lads that have a counter school culture using qualitative methods. Found they believed there was no point in trying as they would end up working in a factory anyway, so they failed.
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Rosenthal and Jacobson - Pygmalion in the Classroom
Gave students of the same ability an IQ test and split them in half. Told teachers one half were spurters and others were of low ability and left them in education for a year. Gave another IQ test and found that the spurters did better.
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Teachers have low expectations of w/c students as they don't see them as the ideal pupil. W/c students are more likely to be in lower sets/streams.
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When students were placed in bands/streams, m/c students tended to be in higher streams. Teachers had a stereotypical view of the streams.
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Becker (1971)
Interviewed 60 teachers and found that they label and judge pupils on how neat their work is or how they are dressed. M/c students tended to be considered as the ideal pupil.
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Hargeauses - School Counter Culture (SCC) (1976)
W/c s were placed in lower streams and developed School counter culture and troublemakers were also in lower streams. Those in lower streams believed there was no point in trying as they couldn't achieve their goals.
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Rist (1970)
Found that in an American Kindergarten the teacher used background information of a child and placed them into groups, the ones closer to her were encouraged more and they had a neat appearance and those further away weren't encouraged as much.
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Chubb and Moe (1990) - Consumer Choice (New Right)
They believe there should be an educational voucher worth £1000 for parents to use on schools. Argue that American schools have failed their goals and should be placed in the Free Market.
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Chubb and Moe - CONTINUED
Compared achievements of 60,000 pupils from low-income families in state and private schools as well as a parent survey. Private school had better achievement and parents were more pleased.
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Howard (2001)
Young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals.
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Tanner et al (2003)
Lack of financial support means that children from poorer homes have to do without equipment.
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Fear of stigmitisation may explain why 20% of Free School Meal don't take it up and and financial restrictions may explain why many working class pupils leave at 16.
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Douglas (1964)
M/c parents are more interested as they want their children to stay in school beyond minimum age and they visit school frequently to discuss progress and gave children more attention and stimulus during primary socsialisation.
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Bernstein and Young (1974)
M/c parents are more likely to choose toys that encourage thinking and reasoning skills and prepare children for school.
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Bereiter and Engleman (1966)
Claim that language used by w/c home is deficient, as when they grow up they're unable to explain, describe and enquire. They can't take advantage of opportunities the school offer.
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Bernstein (1975)
2 forms of speech code: Restricted (used by w/c) and Elaborated (used by m/c). Teachers and books use the elaborate code, which disadvantages w/c as they use restricted code.
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W/c parents placed less value on education and were less ambitious for their children. Less interest in child's education and visited the school less often.
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Feinstein (1998)
Financial deprivation had some effects on achievement but cultural deprivation was more important. w/c parents lack of interest was the reason for underachievement.
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Gerwitz (1995)
There are 3 types of choosers: Privileged-skilled choosers, Semi-skilled choosers and Disconnected Choosers.
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Hyman (1967)
Argues that people from the w/c place a lower value on education - they believe that there is less opportunity for personal advancement compared to m/c who place a value on achieving a high occupation status.
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Sugarman (1970)
Argues that m/c and w/c subcultures have different attitudes. w/c wanted immediate gratification and were more likely to accept their position than making an effort to improve it.
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Bourdieu (1977)
Argues cultural capital gave middle class students an advantage and w/c parents may not value or share educational importance as they have not adopted the culture themselves as students.
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Blackstone and Mortimore (1994)
Argued w/c parents spend less time visiting schools because of the demand of jobs and they were put off of teacher interactions. M/c parents created close contact with schools.
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Reay et al (2005)
W/c pupils were more likely to be in part time employment which distract them from their studies and worked longer hours than m/c. Over 25% of m/c children had private tutors and most w/c students applied to local Uni's and stayed at home.
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Smith and Noble (1995)
Having money allows parents to provide for their child's educational need (i.e.books, tutors, more space). Schools are increasing charges for trips, materials and equipment so they can make ends.
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Gillbourn and Youdell (2000)
Teachers expected m/c students to do better than w/c students, so placed m/c in higher sets.
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Ball et al:(1995)
Parental choice and marketisation led to inequality as m/c could ensure that their children went to a school of their choice, so they would research schools beforehand. Many w/c parents send their children to the nearest school.
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Flaherty (2004)
Found that Bangladeshis and Pakistanis are over 3x more likely to be in poorer fifth of the population. 15% of ethnic minorities live in overcrowded conditions. Indians and Whites tend to have a higher social class than other ethnic groups.
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Gilborn and Mirza
Argue that ethnicity has a big influence on achievement.
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Rex (1986)
Discrimination leads to social exclusion and worsens poverty.
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Noon (1993)
Sent same application only changing names to a white British name and found that companies are more likely to call back the applicants with 'white' names.
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Basit (2013)
Found that cultural factors had an impact on educational achievement in British Asian communities. She started through generations and used focus groups - found that grandparents believe education is a significant asset.
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Connor et al (2004)
Found that year 13 students with positive attitudes to education are strongest among black African students planning to go to higher education.
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Sewell (1997)
Researched 11-16 year old pupils in London schools. Claims being brought up by a lone parent mother can lead to boys lacking a male/father figure; as a result they join gangs which encourage aggressive behaviour.
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Gillborn and Youdell (1970's)
Teachers were quick to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour. Teachers expected black pupils to have more discipline problems and acted on this misinterpretation and pupils responded negatively, which created conflict.
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Found that teachers have ethnocentric views as they often assume that Asian pupils would have a poor proficiency in English, so leave them out of discussions, making them feel isolated. Asian girls were marginalised.
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Troyna and Williams (1986)
Curriculum in British schools is ethnocentric as they give priority to white culture and the English language.
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David (1993)
Describes the national curriculum as a 'specifically British' curriculum as it ignores European languages , literature and music.
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Claims that the national curriculum ignores cultural and ethnic diversity and promotes an attitude of 'Little Engladism'. E.g. History curriculum recreates the age of 'past glories' whilst ignoring the history of other ethnic groups.
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Coard (How it Affects Attainment)
Ethnocentric curriculum may produce underachievement. E.g. In history the British are presented as bringing civilisation to the 'primitive' people they colonised and this often undermined black children's self-esteem and leads to the failure.
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Fuller (Rejecting Negative Labels)
Studied a group of black girls in a London school. Girls were high achievers in schools where black girls were placed in low streams, girls channeled the anger about being labelled negatively into pursuit of educational success but didn't follow rule
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Mac and Ghail - Rejecting Negative Labels
Studied black A-level students. Students who believed that teachers labelled them negatively rejected the label. Some girls felt that having been to an all girls school gave them greater academic commitment which help them overcome negative labels.
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Studied black girls that faced racist teachers. Found that racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious. 3 types of teachers racism: The Colour-Blind, The Liberal Chavinists, and The Overt-Racist.
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Sewell (1998, Variety of boys responses)
Teachers had a stereotype of ‘black machismo,’ which sees black boys as rebellious, anti-authority and anti-social. 4 responses: The Rebels, The Conformists, The Retreatists, and The Innovators.
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Troyna and Williams
See minimal facility for teaching Asian languages as a form of bias being built into everyday workings of the school. Governing bodies give low priority to race issues and failed to deal with pupils racist behaviour as a priority.
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In the schools they studied there was no formal communication between school governors and ethnic minority parents, so nothing was done about parents concerns.
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Moore and Davenport
Selection procedures can lead to ethnic segregation - ethnic minorities fail to get into better schools. Schools discriminated against problems students. Application hard for non-English speaking parents.
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Browne (2008)
Shows that the achievement of males and females within education has ‘roller-coastered.’1980’s-concerns about females low achievement.1990’s-females significantly outperform boys except in math/sciences. Today - females outperform boys in all subject
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McRobbie (1994)
Studied girls magazines in 1970 and 1990.In the 1970s the magazines were more about beauty and relationships but in 1990 the magazines were more academic.
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Webb et al (2008)
Number of women in employment went up and the pay gap between men and women decreased. Women are breaking the glass ceiling.
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Sharpe (1976/94)
Interviewed girls in 1976 and 1994 and found that the priorities of girls have changed. 1976 - Love, marriage, husband, children then career. 1994 - career and independence became the priority, so girls had high expectations.
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Fuller (2011)
Females see educational success as a central aspect of their identity. Saw themselves as creators of their own futures and believed in meritocracy, aimed for professional careers that would enable them to support themselves.
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Rey (1998)
Reflects the reality of girls’ class position - limited aspirations reflect limited job opportunities they perceive as being available to them.
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Biggart (2002)
Found that w/c girls are more likely to see motherhood as the only practical option for their futures, so they see less point in achieving in education.
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Francis (2000)
Boys underachieve due to being criticised more by teachers for their behaviour and girls are more likely than boys to fit stereotypes of the ideal student. Teachers labelled boys as lazy, untidy and disruptive.
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Stanworth (1983)
Argued that boys received more attention from teachers due to their behaviour.
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Myhill and Jones (2006)
Conducted semi-structured interviews and ask 144 students of whether teachers treat boys and girls differently. Respondents claimed that boys were treated more negatively than girls.
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Jackson (2006)
Used a mixture of interviews and questionnaires to study and masculinity and femininity in 8 schools. Found there is a hegemonic masculinity -academic work was defined as feminine which resulted in boys messing around and not concentrating in school
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Jackson (2006):
Number of unskilled and semi-skilled manual jobs available have a rapidly declined. This was fundamental in a providing w/c males a sense of identity. Most service sector jobs are seen as too feminine.
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Mac and Ghail (1994) - Crisis in Masculinity
Limited career opportunities for males meaning that boys have lower or no aspirations.
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Rowell (2007)
Carried out a survey across 500 schools in Britain and found that 67% of parents with daughters wanted them to go to university compared to 62% of parents with sons.
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Epstein et al (1998)
Identified a shared discourse that’ boys will be boys’. this implies the boys are naturally clever but tend to be lazy and too difficult to motivate, noisy and demanding.
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Francis (2000)
Argued the boys underachieve as they no longer see themselves as more able than girls and also because they are more keen to not be seen as nerds by working hard.
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Arnot et al (1999)
Evidence indicates girls enjoy education more than boys and this may breed male subcultures which are oriented away from educational achievement, which undermines boys involved but also those who are penalised by their peers for attempting to succeed
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Francis (2006)
Boys underachieve because teachers fail to meet boys’ learning needs and fail to appreciate and understand their masculinity. Female teachers dominate primary schools where they control and suppress ’boyness.’
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Argues that education is perceived as feminine and boys who follow the intellectual path are likely to be labelled by their peers as feminine or as teachers pets and consequently bullied.
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Francis and Skelton (2005):
Use the work of Beck (1992) and claim that the uncertainties in family mean that women now seek greater security through being well qualified and being self-reliant; people are more individualised.
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Sharpe (1974/94)
Where girls first prioritise, love, marriage, husband, children. Now they prioritise jobs and careers.
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Francis and Skelton (2005)
Argue that women now seek jobs which require degree Level qualifications.
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Mitsos and Browne:
Argue that the rise in feminism and women's movement have raised the expectations and self-esteem of women.
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Women have experienced a genderquake where there has been a changes to women's attitude and expectations compared to earlier generations.
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Phillips (2002)
Argues that educational success is associated with femininity and so girls.
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Edwards and Davids (2000)
Boys are nosier and more troublesome than girls. This leads to boys forming male subcultures.
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Burns and Bracey (2001):
Girls work better at home than boys as they're more organised, care more about presentation and are better at literacy.Boys see mum reading to them, so it is considered a feminine activity.
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Francis (2006)
found ⅔ of 7-8 yr olds that gender of teachers doesn’t matter.
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Spender (1983)
When boys questioned teachers they were respected. When girls questioned teachers they were seen as assertive and ‘un-lady like.’ Experimented with marking and found girls were marked more harshly than boys.
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Stansworth (1990)
Teachers gave more attention to boys than girls and expected more of them.
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Sukhanda et al (2000)
Boys receive less support and teachers encourage and have higher expectations of girls. Teacher’s sat boys next to girls so they learn work ethic as they were critical of boys.
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Mitsas and Brown (1998)
Boys have lower expectations than girls. Teachers expected boys work to be late, rushed and for them to be disruptive in lesson.
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Coffey and Delamount
Schools have always been patriarchal.
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Pirie (2001)
Linear exams in A-levels and GCSEs helps girls do better as it requires organisation and sustained concentration.
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Machin and McNally (2006)
Girls did better in coursework and boys did better in the end of year exams.
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Bleach (1998)
Curriculum changes favours girls over boys. E.g. the 2014 reforms to English lead to an increase in studying literature like Shakespeare. Girls prefer long fiction and boys prefer short non-fiction.
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Arnot et al
Boys are good at memorising and like subjects with immediate correct answers.
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Colley (1998) and Francis (2000) - Socialisation:
Colley explains the reasons for different subject choices. Francis argues that canalisation leads to career choice - girls want to help people and boys want to know how things work.
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Browne and Ross (1991) - ‘Gender Careers’
Certain careers are dominated by females and others are dominated by males, so girls do subjects that lead to female dominated careers and boys do subjects that lead to a male dominated career.
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Skelton (2003) - Male Gaze and Peer Pressure
In STEM subjects teachers and boys would stereotypes the girls and they conform to the stereotype. If women don’t conform they’re considered masculine. Boys don’t choose feminine subjects due to peer pressure.
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Colley (1998) (What do these choices lead to)
These choices have lead to females ending up in a low status and relatively low paid professions compared to males.
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Hargreaves et al (1975)
Did an overt participant observation and unstructured interviews in North England. 3 step in labelling: Speculation, Elaboration, and Stabilisation.
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A variety of pupil responses: Ingratiation, Compliance, Opportunism, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion.
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Hollingworth and Williams (2009)
Argue that white anti school subcultures now seen as chavs rather than lads. M/c have a wider society of subcultures.
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Mac and Ghai
Looked at a range of subcultures: the Macho Lads, the academic achievers,the new Enterprises, real Englishman and gay students.
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Ghevarughese (1987)
She argues that colonialism rewrote history to exclude the contributions of non-European societies in maths and sciences making the curriculum ethnocentric as it marginalises ethnic minorities and promote little Englandism.
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Cotton et al
Argues that the hidden curriculum places a value on efficiency and value for money rather than promotion of greater equality and opportunity.
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States that despite strategies such as Millennium Development Goals (2000) set out by the UN to free people from poverty - inequalities in education still exist.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Within the family children are judged by particularistic standards but in school they are judged by universalistic standards. They are taught to value achieved status over ascribed status.


Parsons (1961) - Meritocracy (Functionalist)

Card 3


School sifts and sorts us according to our abilities. Inequality is necessary so that most important roles are filled by the most able as otherwise no-one would do w/c jobs.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Modern economy depends for prosperity as using’ human capital’ ( people= money); so it makes use of the most talented and maximises productivity.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


2 elements - RSA (Repressive) maintains the rule of the bourgeoisie by force and the ISA maintains the rule by controlling people's beliefs and values.


Preview of the back of card 5
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