Ecology and Evolution

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Species
a group of similar organisms which are able to interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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Evolution
the change in heritable characteristics/ allele frequency of a population over time
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Sources of variation in natural selection (3)
Mutation, Meiosis, Sexual reproduction
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Pentadactyl Limb
An example of a homologous structure. A limb with five digits, characteristic of tetrapod vertebrates
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Selective breeding
domesticated breeds developed from wild species by selecting individuals with desirable traits and breeding from them
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Melanistics
Darker varieties of typically light coloured insects
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Population
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same space at the same time
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Community
A group of populations living together
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the environment in which a species usually lives
Habitat
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Ecosystem
A community and its abiotic environment
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Abitotic factors
Non living surroundings of a community: wind, water, stones, sand
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Biotic factors
Living organisms in a community
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Speciation
the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution
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Adaptive Radiation
the rapid evolutionary diversification of a single ancestral line (i.eChanges in beaks of finches on Daphne Major
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What are the Three Domains in which all organisms are classified?
archaea, eubacteria, eukaryota
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Natural selection
only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and their genetic characters in increase while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.
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Natural classification
groups based on similar DNA and shared characteristics can be seen within a group
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Artificial classification
Old method of classification: Based on physical characteristics (wings) and not DNA- bats w/ moths tho they are not related
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Autotrophs
Organisms that can synthesize their own organic molecules
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Heterotrophs
Consumers that cannot synthesize their own organic molecules
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Saprotrophs
obtain organic nutrients from dead organisms by external digestion
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Detritivores
obtain organic nutrients from detrius by internal digestion
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Consumers
obtain energy from food (other organisms)
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Example of autotrophs (2)
most plants and algea
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Angiospermophytes
Flowering plants with roots, leaves and woody stems.
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Platyhelminths
TAPEWORMS: Bilaterally symmetric; flat bodies; unsegmented; mouth but no anus.
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Annelida
LEECHES: Bilaterally symmetric; bristles often present; segmented; mouth and anus
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Trophic levels
An organism's position in the food chain
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Classification
Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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Porifera
SPONGES: No clear symmetry; attached to a surface; pores throughout body; no mouth or anus
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Plant classification
BUTTERCUP: Plantae, Angiorpermophyta, Dicotyledoneae, Ranales, Ranunculacae, Ranunculus, acris
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Animal classification
HUMAN: Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, sapiens.
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Ecology
The study of relationships in ecosystems
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Mollusca
SNAIL: muscular, shell usually present, segmentation not visible, mouth and anus
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Genus
A group of similar species
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Coniferophyta
PINES: Roots, narrow leaves with a waxy cuticle, woody stems, seeds in cones
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Arthopoda
SPIDERS: Bilaterally symmetrical; exoskeleton; segmented; jointed appendages
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Causes for change in population size (4)
Immigration, emigration, natality, mortality
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Filicinophyta
FERNS: Roots; leaves, shoots; non-woody stems; spores produced in sporangia
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Cnidaria
JELLYFISH: Radially symmetric; tentacles; stinging cells; mouth but no anus.
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Bryophytes
MOSSES: No roots, hair-like structures called rhizoids, spores in capsules
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Producers
organisms that make their own food
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What is the initial energy source in a community?
Light
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What are the three ways energy is lost in the food chain?
1. Some organisms die before they are eaten 2. some parts are not eaten (hair, bones, gall bladders) 3. Some parts are indigestible (cellulose for humans) and are egested in feces
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Name a cause for energy loss
cellular respiration
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What is the energy source for most ecosystems?
Sunlight
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Energy pyramids
diagrams showing how much energy flows through each tropic level in a community (each level is smaller than the one below it)
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nutrients in an ecosystem
ecosystems have limited supplies of nutrients but these supplies do not run out as nutrients is recycable
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What are the sources of CO2 for autotrophs?
atmosphere and water
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Name the prokaryotes which produce the gas methane
methanogenic archaeans
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How is carbon dioxide produced?
through the combustion of carbon compounds (non-biological process)
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How does global CO2 concentrations change over the course of a year?
Drops from May to Oct and rise through to next may (due to photosynthesis: more plants in summer, less CO2)
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What is limestone
rock that mainly consists of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Contains many fossils (i.e mollusc, shells, coral skeleton)
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Where are the large amount of the earths CO2 'locked up'?
Limestone
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How can CO2 in limestone be released?
If limestone reacts with acid (source of acid is carbolic acid (H2CO3) in rainwater)
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Formation of Peat and Coal
Partly decomposed plant matters in acidic and anaerobic conditions (bogs and swaps) accumulate to form peat. Over millions of years, peat is crushed and converted to coal
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Name all fossil fuels (4)
Peat, coal, oil & gas
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Formation of Oil and Gas
dead animals covered in sand & silt in sea- pressure over millions of years- compressed into oil and gas
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What type of radiation does the Sun predominantly emit?
short wavelengths
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What happens to the suns radiation?
25%: absorbed by the atmosphere 75% absorbed by the earth and converted to heat
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What do greenhouse gases impact depend on?
.Its ability to absorb long-wave radiation .Its concentration in the atmosphere
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What are the most significant greenhouse gases?
carbon dioxide and water vapour
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Ice core
Used to measure carbon dioxide concentration at a certain period in time
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Ocean acidification
when CO2 is dissolved into water
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The chemical reaction when CO2 is dissolved into water
CO2+H2O > H2CO3 > H^+ HCO3^-
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How much CO2 has dissolved into the ocean since the start of the Industrial Revolution?
500 billion tonnes
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How has the amount of CO2 dissolved into the ocean since the Industrial Revolution affected the oceans pH?
pH has dropped from 8.25 to 8.15: 30% acidification
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What marine animals does ocean acidification directly affect?
animals with calcium carbonate in their skeletons (reef-building coral) and need to absorb calcium carbonation ions from seawater
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How does carbon dioxide affect calcium carbonate ions in the water?
. CaCO3 ions are already low as they are not v/ soluble. CO2 lowers concentration. CO2 also converts carbonic acid into hydrogen ions which converts carbonate into hydrogen carbonate> Reduced carbonate: new CaCO3 cannot be made & coral dissolves
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Clade
group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor
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Cladograms
tree diagrams that show the most probable sequence of divergence in clades
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Detrius
dead material from living organisms (i.e dead leaves or animal feces)
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homologous structures
similar anatomically but have different functions (pentadactyl limb)
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analogous structures
similar function (wing) but do not stem from a common ancestor (bats and moths)
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Card 2

Front

Evolution

Back

the change in heritable characteristics/ allele frequency of a population over time

Card 3

Front

Sources of variation in natural selection (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Pentadactyl Limb

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Selective breeding

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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