Species and Communities

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  • Ecology and conservation
    • the distribution of species is affected by limiting factors
      • abiotic factors
        • temperature
        • water availability
        • light intensity
        • soil pH
        • soil salinity
        • breeding sites
        • food supply
      • biotic factors
    • Each species plays a unique role within a community because of the unique combinations of its spatial habitat and interactions with other species
      • Ecological niche
    • Two species cannot survive indefinitively in the same habitat if their niches are identical
      • competitive exclusion principle
      • Fundamental niche - the potential mode of existence
      • realized niche - actual mode of existence
    • interactions between species in a community can be classified according to their effects
      • herbivory
      • predation
      • parasitism - one organism feeds of the other but does not kill it
      • Mutualism - two species live in a close association
      • Comensalism - one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed or killed
    • Community Structure can be strongly affected by keystone species


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