Genetics

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  • Created by: Pope1912
  • Created on: 01-03-15 16:09
Nucleotide
Complex chemicals made up of a base, a sugar and a phosphate. They are the basic units of which the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made of.
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Polynucleotide
A long chain formed by linking mononucleotides together.
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DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
A chemical that determines the inherited charateristics and contains a vast mount of information in the form of genetic code.
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Gene
The sections of the DNA that contain the coded information for making polypeptides.
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Allele
One of a number of forms of a gene.
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Complementary Base Pairing Rule
Adenine and Thymine Guanine and Cytosine
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Sugar Phosphate Backbone
Backbone consisting of repeated pattern of sugar and phosphate groups. sugar - deoxyribose.
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Chromosome
A thread like structure made of protein and DNA by which hereditary nformation is physically passed from one generation to the next.
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Homologous Chromosome
A pair of chromosomes - one maternl and one paternal - that have the same gene loci and therefore determine the same features. homologous chromosomes pair during the meiosis process.
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Phosphodiester Bond
The covalent chemical bond that holds together the polynucleotide chains of DNA by joining a specific carbon in the phosphate group, in a 5 carbon sugar, to a specific carbon in the hydroxyl group of the 5 carbon sugar in the adjacent nucleotide.
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Locus
The position of the gene on a chromosome/DNA molecule.
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Intron
A stretch of DNA that interrupts a gene and does not contribute to the specification of a protein.
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Exon
A nucleotide sequence that is found in a gene. it codes information for protein synthesis and is transcribed to messenger RNA.
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Codon
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule.
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Triplet
A unit of three nucleotides in a molecule of DNA that codes for an amino acid.
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Mutation
A sudden change in the amount or the arrangement of the genetic material in a cell.
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Degenerate
A gene that has multiple codons for the same amino acid.
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Continuous Variation
Variation in which organisms do not fall into distinct categories but show gradations from one extreme to another.
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Discontinuous Variation
Variation shown when the characteristics of organisms fall into specific categories.
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Meiosis
The type of neclear division in which the number of chromosomes is halved.
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Genetic Diversity
The greater the number of different alelles within all memebers of a species; the greater the genetic diversity. increased diversity means the species is more able to adapt.
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Selective Breeding
Choosing induviduals with the desired characteristics and only allowing them to breed. Offspring without the desired characteristics are killed or prevented from reproducing.
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The Founder Effect
Occurs when a few induviduals colonise a new region. this decreases the variation of alelles in the population and therefore the genetic diversity decreases. The founder population is different and a new species may develop.
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Genetic Bottlenecks
Genetic diversity will decrease and populations may suffer a dramatic drop in numbers. The survivors will posses fewer variety or alelles.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A long chain formed by linking mononucleotides together.

Back

Polynucleotide

Card 3

Front

A chemical that determines the inherited charateristics and contains a vast mount of information in the form of genetic code.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The sections of the DNA that contain the coded information for making polypeptides.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

One of a number of forms of a gene.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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