How do catalysts speed a reaction?
they provide a different route with lover activation energy
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Avogadro's Constant
6.02x10^23 atoms in 1mol
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Features of a Zeolite
-large surface area -many channels
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Heterogeneous catalysts appear where?
on the surface of the catalyst
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the measure of number of ways particles can be arranged
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Empirical Formula
simplest ratio of atoms
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Why can enthalpy change be negative?
-breaking bonds is endo/takes in energy -forming bonds is exo/releases energy -exo is larger than endo value
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Practical Limitations: Energy Transfer
-hard to use a gas fuel, might escape -incomplete combustion -heat lost to surroundings
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Bonds between bio molecules
Glycosydic-sugar Ester-fats/lipids Pepetide-proteins Phosphodiester-DNA
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When comparing storage molecules
-molecule makeup -structure (branched) -ease of hydrolysis? -compact? -which fits more? -solubility? -diffusion/osmotic affect?
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Which molecules do not easily diffuse out of and have little osmotic affect in a cell?
Large and insoluble molecules
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How does ethanol interrupt colour intensity?
-disruption of membrane -ethanol is a non polar solvent -lipids dissolve in ethanol -solution becomes less polar -the surrounding solution changes the orientation of the phospholipids
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Statins uses
-inhibit cholesterol synthesis -increase LDL receptors on liver cells -less LDLs
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Statins risks
-liver problems -kidney problems -mental health problems
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How do enzymes work?
-enzyme/substrate complex forms -substrate binds to active site -bonds broken/made (example) -iduced fit -lower activation energy -product released and no longer binded to active site
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Why isn't a wind turbine 100% efficient?
because the air is always moving and cannot always be captured
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Friction = W = 6 x pi x r x n x v
Viscous Drag
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Higher Viscosity and speed
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Turbines and work
-work done? -medium exerts a force on the turbine -turbines move through a distance in the direction of the force
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mgh = 1/2 x m x v^2
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Resolving Vectors
Tsin x 2 = W / 2
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When you can't assume air resistance or friction
-a physical cause (distance or movement) -energy causes (not in the object)
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Why is terminal velocity F = W - U?
-there is no net force on the object -W = F + U
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The straight part of a force/extension graph
shows a material is stiff and elastic
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deforms plastically before breaking
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How do you display viscosity values on a graph?
log scale or power of 10 scale
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Elastic metals molecules
-bonds stretched -don't break -atoms move apart and then return
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Plastic metals molecules
-bonds stressed -break -atoms don't move apart and don't return when broken
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How would a tough material appear on a graph?
large area under the linear part
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Crumple Zones
increase displacement -decrease acceleration -decrease the impact force
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Why does the acceleration decrease during free fall?
-air resistance increases as it speeds up -net force decreases -acceleration decreases
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Stokes Law Assumption
that there is no viscous drag and laminar flow
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Viscous Drag
force which opposes motion through a fluid which has visosity
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The cause of upthrust
the object displaces some of the liquid around it
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Card 2


Avogadro's Constant


6.02x10^23 atoms in 1mol

Card 3


Features of a Zeolite


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Card 4


Heterogeneous catalysts appear where?


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