Disorders of Memory - Amnesia

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  • Created by: Kathryn
  • Created on: 17-05-14 09:34
What is a memory disorder
a physical condition that prevents persons ability to encode, recall or retain information
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Difference between procedural and declarative?
- Procedural: LTM’s, how we do things (e.g.swim) - Declarative: Facts based in memory store (e.g where the local swimming
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What is amnesia?
Amnesia is a profound loss of memory caused by physical damage or psychological trauma. Two types of amnesia
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What is anterograde
Inability to form new long term memories
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What did Isaac and Mayes suggest
may be due to problems with consolidation or retrieval or memories. Study found amnesiacs performed as well as controls on cued recall and recognition, suggesting issue is with consolidation rather than retrieval
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What is retrograde
More common. partial or total loss of memories of past events
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What does the LTM need to do
LTM needs to be consolidated otherwise they’re ‘lost’. Recall of memories before this improves as more time passes since they were formed. Change indicates LTMs need to be consolidated otherwise they are ‘lost’.
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What is Korsakoff syndrome
memory loss is caused by chronic alcoholism.Caused by a deficiency in the B vitamin thiamine, and can also occur with malnutrition and also happens with people aged 40-80.
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Explanation through surgery/injury?
HM (Milner 70)
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What happened to HM
Following an operation removing hippocampus (important for declarative memory e.g. episodic and semantic). Consequently, HM suffered retrograde amnesia, could not recognise staff he had known for years
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What did Berant et al find?
Berant et al found - retrograde amnesia in patients aged 60-84 years after elective surgery compared with their pre-operative functioning, showing that surgery can have an effect on memory.
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Who receive damage via virus?
Clive wearing
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What happened to Clive Wearing
Had encephalitis which caused hippocampus to become damaged, cannot transfer information from STM to LTM stores . Can remember how to play piano so his procedural memory is intact. Clive suffers from both antero and retrograde amnesia.
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Evalution - The problem with case studies?
Case Studies - cannot be generalised, to specific. Past records may be incomplete.
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Evaluation - No explicit memory? Who thought this and why
Stickgold et al (2000) taught amnesiacs how to play tetris and can remember how to play, however cannot recall how they were taught. Developed implicit memory of game/
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Evaluation - Relation Memory binding, who forwarded this
Ryan et al, amnesiacs fail to note the implicit/explicit distinctions identify a key difference in memory function in amnesia but it does not indicate why this happens - descriptive not explanatory.
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Card 2

Front

Difference between procedural and declarative?

Back

- Procedural: LTM’s, how we do things (e.g.swim) - Declarative: Facts based in memory store (e.g where the local swimming

Card 3

Front

What is amnesia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is anterograde

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Isaac and Mayes suggest

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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