Developmental Psychology

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  • Created on: 08-01-14 13:53
Granville Stanley Hall (1904)
'Storm and Stress' - the emotional and physical volatility of adolescence, not a steady process of development
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Arnett (1999)
Tradtional cultures = less likely to find adolescence disrupting, not experienced by all, experience conflict with their parents, mood disruptions and engage in high levels of risk behaviour
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Kett (1977)
changes in society = more educated workforce, increasingly complex nature of work, late 19th century, restrict child labour and schooling made compulsory
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Hartung and Sweeney (1991)
'real life' rose to 25 (joining work place and getting married)
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Daniel Offer (1969)
The Psychological World of the Teenager, not the norm to experience emotional upheaval or show disruptive behaviour
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Graber et al (1994)
taller, fitter, well-nourished girls menstruate earlier
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UK Department of Health Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition (1998)
protein rich plant-food, beans and nuts = later menarche, protein-rich animal food, meat and dairy = later menarche
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Caspi and Moffitt (1991)
Early maturing girls exhibit more beh problems than their peers
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Ge et al (1996)
early maturing girls = worse self esteem, depressed, lonely, less popular, poor at school. later maturing = more popular, more physically attractive
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Brooks-Gunn (1998a)
Early maturing boys = confident, independent, physically attractive, do well both academically and athletically
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Susman et al (1985)
early maturers = sexually promiscuous beh, social difficulties, emotional problems (anxiety/depression), conflict with parents
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Abitz et al (2007)
rapid reduction of synapses in prefrontal cortex, 41% fewer then newborn
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Blakemore and Choudhury (2006)
greater efficiency in transmission of info in brain - myelination
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Sowell et al (1999)
increase in white and grey matter prior to adolescence - grey matter decreases and replaced by white matter after puberty
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Ellis (1996)
Develop prospective memory
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Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
theory of cognitive development, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, propositional thought, idealistic, methodical, make judgements to hypothetical questions
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Keating (1980)
against Piaget - only 40-60% of college students consistently use formal logic
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Erik. H. Erikson (1902-1994)
theory of psychosocial development, Identity vs role diffusion stage of development, identity crisis, who they are, what they value, previously devel = environment
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Stattin and Magnusson (1990)
against Erikson, need to fufill gender roles, conflict with other demands eg academic achievement
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David Elkind (1931-)
theory of adolescent egocentrism, develop crushing preoccupation of themselves, centre of attention, embarrassment, aware of others opinions, doesnt last for long
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Simmons and Blyth (1987)
drop in self esteem as 'hyperaware' of others, does recover
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Lawerence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
Theory of Moral Development: parallel between cog development and complexity of morals/ethics. 3 levels - what other factors are in the debate?
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Claes et al (2003)
french teenagers = relationship with parents = weak, little supervision
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Flouin and Buchanan (2002)
need good relationship with parents and teenagers, plenty of father involvement
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Honess et al (1997)
less aggression between fam when both parents, then when father is absent or non-bio related male is present
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Lanz et al (1999)
teenagers = non intact families = harder to talk to parents about fears and worries
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Palmer and Hollin (2001)
also more likely to be invovled in arguing with friends/teens at school
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Lanz et al (1999) adoption
separated families = more problems with parents then in other family structures, adopted families = better communication with adoptive parents
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Fatimilehin (1999)
live with both parents = assimilate both identities into coherent sense of self, express racial pride and + self identity
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Basow & Rubin (1999)
during puberty, sense of gender identity intensifies
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Bem (1981)
Gender Schema Theory - info processing approach, combining SLT with cog dev theory
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Young & Sweeting (2004)
gender identity = most important factor in making strong friendships
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Brutsaert (2006)
strong gender identity = friends + likely to accept us, peer acceptance higher if gender identity matches bio sex and social norms
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Zimmermann (2004)
girls = more socially anxious, secure = good quality friendship/better group intergration, avoidant/dismissive = shallow basis to friendships, influenced by group direction, less likely to walk away
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Aluja-Fabregat (2000)
watch more violent = more aggressive rated by teachers (470 catalan, 13/14 students)
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Colwell & Payne (2000)
exposure to aggressive computer games = not related to aggression (204, 13/14 UK)
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Flouri & Buchanan (2003)
bullying between 14-18 = teens whose parents have less involvement in family life
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Barnow et al (2005)
aggressive behaviour = less self esteem, novelty seeking, experience peer rejection (168 teenagers)
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Ostgard-Ybrandt & Armelius (2004)
report: negative self perception + parenting = + likely antisocial behaviour
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Government National Statistics (2004)
1 in 10 children aged 5-15, has poor mental health, 11% girls, 8% boys
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Collishaw et al (2004)
substantial rise in depression over past 25 years, longitudinal study
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Pelkonen et al (2003)
Finland, 13% young women had depression = low self-esteem, internal factors = dissatisfaction with school/family/no close friends. 9% young boys = low self esteem, external factors = cant resolve conflicts, probs with law, no friends
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Claes et al (2005)
bullying prevented = high supervision, liberal and socially tolerant family, fairness, inclusion of all, low fam conflict, strong + attitude towards peers
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Sieffge-Krenke (2000)
regardless of severity of events, teenagers chose wrong coping strategy
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Hampel & Petermann (2005)
difficulties coping, poor strategies for emotions, rummination & aggression to express frustration, dont distract themselves or share concerns
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Aronen & Kurkela (1998)
families strong on communication and conflict resolution = manage physical/psychological changes, maintain/develop good social relationships
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Traeen et al (1992a)
when 19 = 69% women, 59% men had had sex, most within romantic relationship
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Feeney & Noller (1996)
Secure = longer relationship, less extra relational sex/1 night stands, more enjoyment of physical contact, avoidant = opposite
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Belsky et al (1991)
75% new STI's are in adolescents and young adults
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Traeen et al (1992)
Norway, more concerned about preventing pregnancy than STI, 51% condom 1st time, 31% most recent, rise in pill 7-38%
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Henderson et al (2002)
sex = low levels of parental monitoring, Scotland, 7630 14y/o, 18% boys, 15% girls had sex, 65% regular condom use
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NATSAL (2000)
large scale, over 11000 people, 30% men 26% women lost V by 16
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Levin et al (2002)
relationship = december, losing V = summer months
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Hass (1979)
boys earlier first **********/more often, 16-19 boys, 2/3 boys, 1/2 girls once or more a week
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Janus & Janus (1993)
first sex = males 15.5, females. 16.0
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Simon et al (1972)
boys only 1/3 repeat with 1st partner, girls 2/3, many repeats
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Carns (1973)
boys = + feelings & reactions from friends, girls = more likely to have mixed feelings & reactions
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Simmons & Blyth (1987)
by 18/19 most teens experience 1 steady partner, often stereotyped ritual patterns, little report of emotional intimacy
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Byrne (1971)
chose partners similar to us 'similarity attraction hypothesis'
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Hogue & Steinburg (1995)
adolescent peers = similar socio-economic backgrounds
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Lazarsfield & Merton (1954)
homophily = people who are similar = friends
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Kandel (1978)
homophily explain stability and duration of friendships in teenage years
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Blackwell & Lichter (2000)
adult romantic partners = from similar socioeconomic backgrounds, have similar personal religious & political viewpoints
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Matthews & Reus (2001)
adult romantic partners are similar in internalising stress and worry, displaying aggression
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Blais, Graig, Pepler, Connolly & Shelley (2003)
150 romantic pairs, 10-19yrs, m=15, SD=1. romantic partners = + similar patterns of alcohol/marijuana
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Feeney & Noller (1996)
anxious ambivalent girls = exhibitionism, voyeurism, domination *******, men = sexual reticence, both into touch not sex
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Arnett (1999)

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Tradtional cultures = less likely to find adolescence disrupting, not experienced by all, experience conflict with their parents, mood disruptions and engage in high levels of risk behaviour

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Kett (1977)

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Hartung and Sweeney (1991)

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Daniel Offer (1969)

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