Developmental Psychology

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Describe the Sensori-motor stage
0-18months, children learn via their senses
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Describe the pre-operational stage stage
18moths-7years, symbols and general rules become important, children learn conservation.
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Describe the concrete operational stage
7-12 years, thought experiments become a possibility but are still limited by the present world and how it is.
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Describe the formal stage
12years+ thoughts are governed by logical reasoning and cause and effect can be considered
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Define conservation
Understanding that if the shape of something is physically changed it will still have the same mass, volume or number.
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Define Reverse mental operations
Lack of this (in Pre operational stage) means that they can only accept what they observe at present and for example, would not be able to understand that a pool of water was once an ice cube.
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What was S&B's aim?
To test the hypothesis that asking only one question in a conservation task would lead to more correct answers.
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Who were S&B's participants?
252 boys and girlys from a variety of devon preschools placed into four aged controlled groups of 63.
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What were the average ages of the group?
*5.3years *6.3years *7.3years *8.3years
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What was the standard piaget condition?
Pre and post transformation question asked
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What was the one judgement condition?
Shown transformation but only asked one post transformation question
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What was the fixed array condition?
control group- saw only post transformation then asked question
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How many trials did each child in S&B have?
4 trials for each material, making a total of 12 trials.
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How was conservation of number tested?
Shown two rows of counters, one of the rows was then moved to stretch/squash.
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How was conservation of volume tested?
Two identical glasses of liquid with same volume, one of them was poured into a different shaped glass.
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How was conservation of mass tested?
plasticine was rolled into a cylindrical shape and then flattened.
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What was the experimental design of S&B?
Independent measures design
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What were the 3 IV's in S&B?
age, experimental condition, material used in conservation task.
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What were S&B's findings about age?
The mean number of errors desreases as the children get older, showing that their ability to conserve increases significantly with age.
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What were S&B's findings about experimental condition?
The mean number of errors is lower for the one judgement condition, the highest number of errors is by the control condition
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What were S&B's findings about the material tested?
Children are more successful and so make fewer errors when conserving number compared with volume or mass.
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What conclusions did S&B come to?
Children can conserve better than piaget thought showing that demand characteristics were shown in Piagets experiment, children need to gain knowledge gained from the pre transformation to answer question correctly.
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What does social learning theory say?
We learn through observation, identify with the role model and then imitate behavior.
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What was S&B's aim?
If children were passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult, they would imitate this aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity.
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What was hyp 1 of S&B?
Subjects exposed to aggressive role models will reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of the models
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What was hyp 2 of S&B?
The observation of non aggressive models will have a generalised inhibiting effect on the subjects subsequent behaviour
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What was hyp 3 of S&B?
Subjects will imitate the behviour of a same sex model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite sex
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What was hyp 4 of S&B?
Boys will be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression.
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Who were the participants in Bandura's study?
36 boys+36 girls from stanford university nursery school ages 37-69 months.
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What different conditions did Bandura use?
*children observed an aggressive role model *children observed a non-aggressive role model *children weren't exposed to any adult model (control group)
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What were Banduras 3 IV's?
*Behaviour of model *Sex of child *Sex of model
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What were the 5-point rating scales used pre-banduras study?
*Physical aggression *Verbal aggression *Aggression towards inanimate objects *Aggressive inhibition
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what were the pairs matched on?
*Age *Level of aggression *Gender
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What happened in stage 1 of Bandura's experiment?
INITIAL MODELLING: children entered room, model went into corner with bobo doll, tinker toy set and a mallet. After 10 minutes the experimenter returned and took the child into another room.
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How did the aggressive model behave in stage one?
Physcial aggression: pushed it over, sat on it, struck with mallet, tossed in air, kicked around the room (X3), Verbal aggression: 'pow', 'sock him in the nose', 'he sure is a tough fella'
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How did the non aggressive model behave in stage one?
Ignored the BOBO doll and played with the other toys.
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What happened in stage 2 of Bandura's experiment?
AGGRESSION ARROUSAL: child is take into a room with relatively attractive toys, after 2 minutes of playing the child is told that the experimenter has actually reserved those toys for the other children.
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What happened in stage 3 of Bandura's experiment?
TEST FOR DELAYED IMITATION: mixture of aggressive and non aggressive toys, child observed for 20 minutes through a one way mirror, experimenter stayed in the room to supervise child, pretending to do paper work.
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What sampling method did Bandura use?
Time sampling, every 5 seconds (total of 240 observations).
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What did Bandura classify as imitated aggression?
direct repetition of physical aggresion (punching doll), verbal aggression ('sock him in the nose'), imitative non aggressive verbal responses ('he keeps coming back for more')
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What did Bandura classify as partially imitated aggression?
Mallet aggression, eg striking toy with mallet rather than bobo doll, sits on bobo doll but doesnt hit it
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What did Bandura classify as non imitated aggression?
non imitative physical/verbal aggression eg aggressive gun play
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What were Banduras findings?
There was more partial and non imitative aggression for those who had observed an aggressive role model and vice versa, only boys showed strong same sex modelling, boys were more physically aggressive though there wasn't much difference in verbal.
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What did Bandura conclude?
Observing adult models acting aggressively weakens aggressive inhibitors, making aggressive behaviour more likely. Aggressive behaviour is often seen as more masculine.
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What is the oedipus complex?
1. Castration anxiety 2. identification with aggressor 3. learns stereotypical gender behaviour
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What is the electra complex?
1. penis envy 2.indetifcation with mother to reduce anxiety 3. gender role develops
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What was the aim of Freuds study?
To report findings of the treatment of a 5 year old boy for his "phobia" of horses
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Who did Freud study?
Little Hans (Herbert Graf) age 5 who was studied between the aged of 3 and 5 (phallic stage).
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What method did Freud use?
Case study, collecting secondary data from Hans' father
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How did Hans show interest in his widdler?
Had many dreams and fantasies about widdlers, asked his mother if she had one too.
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What did hans' mother tell hans when he was 3.5 years old?
Not to touch it or she would cut it off.
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What did hans admit to thinking when he watched his sister bathing?
He wished his mother would let her go. Frued interpreted this unconcious desire to see his sister drown as a translated fear that his mother might let him go shwoing that baths symbolise a womb in which hans mother let him go from.
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When did Hans' phobia of horses begin to develop?
Just after he had experienced anxiety dreams about loosing his mother and when his mother warned him about playing with his widdler.
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What did Hans' father describe the main problem as?
He is afraid a horse will bite him in the street and this seeed somehow connected with his having been frightened by a large penis?
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Describe the giraffe dream.
In the night there was a big giraffe (daddy) and a crumpled one (mummy). The big one called out because i took the crumpled one away from it . Then it stopped calling out and i sat on the crumpled one.
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How did Freud explain the giraffe dream?
Morning exchanged in the marital bed, large giraffe neck represented large adult penis.
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What evidence is there that Hans had displaced his fear of his father onto the horse?
freudian slip: 'daddy dont trot away from me', black bits around horses mouth-fathers moustache, blinkers on horse- fathers glasses. when asked if hans thought of his father when the horse fell down, hans repplied yes.
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What was Hans' imaginary friend?
Named lodi (german word for sausage), said it reminded him of lumf (faeces), possibly due to fixation at anal stage
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What was the marriage fantasy?
Married to his mother with father as grandfather, shows that hans accepted his fathers authority so is no longer afraid of him- resolution of oedipus complex.
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What was the pulmber dream?
Plumber came and removed him bottom and widdler, replacing them with larger ones. Resolution of oedipius complex as phobia went around this time.
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What did Hans say when he read the case 14 years later?
Couldnt remember the discussions with his father and said that it came as something unknown to him.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Describe the pre-operational stage stage


18moths-7years, symbols and general rules become important, children learn conservation.

Card 3


Describe the concrete operational stage


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Card 4


Describe the formal stage


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define conservation


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