Development Across Cultures


1. What is Bronfenbrenner's ecological model

  • Families in western backgrounds have little knowledge about other cultures, meaning the children lack empathy and understanding towards children of different races
  • All children are ecologically different due to their culture
  • Children are the centre of their own ecosystem, yet there are lots of factors which influence their life, like culture and family, which we must take into account when studying them
  • Children are genetically similar to their parents, meaning they are the only people they can truly identify with
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2. According to Legare and Harris, how do children learn about culture

  • Active play, Emotion learning, Questioning, Understanding
  • Emotion learning, Curiosity, Hands on attitude and Imitation
  • Emotion learning, Natural pedagogy, Questioning and High-fidelity imitation
  • Imitation, Media consumption, Experiences, Active play

3. Which of these is not related to developing and maintaining culture

  • Socially sensitive- When using different measures, overimitation can be seen in many cultures
  • Maintenance- Children protest when the puppet fails to perform unnecessary actions
  • Socially selective- Children imitate ingroup behaviour over outgroup
  • Demand characteristics- Only including unnecessary actions as the experimenter wants them to copy
  • Global Phenomenon- Overimitation is seen in many countries

4. Which is support for overimitation

  • When children are given a subject they are interested, they will ignore the interests of others and talk to their peers about it none stop
  • Chimapnzees and children observed a woman opening a puzzle box, the chimapnzee ignored actions that were unimportant, yet the children copied everything, prioritising social conventions over physical causality
  • Children imitation others to an extent where people become uncomfortable and withdraw from the child, shown through observations and self-report techniques
  • If a child views a character they identify with in the media, they will internalise this character and believe they are them, changing their behaviour and interests to suit

5. Which is not a study demonstrating the impacts of culture on social development

  • Sharing and Family structure- Children from nuclear or extended families in India and England were asked if they would take all stickers or divide them equally. Interdependence priming only made children pro social if they came from and extended family
  • Ownership Reasoning- Two dolls took a walk together and ended up fighting over an object, children from different culture and family backgrounds were asked who owned the item. All children said the doll who created it or recognised it owned the item. Culture and socio-economic context both influence early ownership
  • Collaboratively- Observed children from collectivist and individualist cultures in social interactions within school. Those from collectivist cultures are more outgoing and likely encourage team work
  • Norms around sharing- In a sweets distribution one child could accept or reject the distribution. As children got older they rejected unfair offers when it disadvantaged them, In US, Canada and Uganda children rejected offers that advantaged them


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