Democracy and Participation questions

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Legitimacy is the right to?
Govern/make laws
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A legitimate govt is widely...?
recognised
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Legitimacy could also be defined as the extent to which a government is ...
justified
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Legitimacy is closely related to the concept of...
Authority
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In the democratic world, legitimacy comes from what type of event?
Election
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Why is the 2010 govt considered by many to not be legitimate?
Elected on minority
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Elections in the UK are supposed to be...
free and fair
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3 ways in which consent of the people for a govt is proved...
lack of dissent, high turnout, referendum for a particular constitution
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The four aspects of citizenship are..
Active citizenship, rights granted by state, civil liberties, duties/obligations
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Two examples of active citizenship
Con- Big Society, Lab- Post-war Social Democracy
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3 rights granted by the state
The right to vote, right to stand for office, right to a fair trial
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3 civil liberties
Freedoms of expression, religion, association.
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2 duties/obligations
To pay tax, obey the law
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The act of the public making political decisions themselves under direct democracy is called...
Self-govt.
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Three words to describe the nature of involvement in direct democracy (why it requires commitment)
direct, consistent, unhampered
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Decisions are reached on what kind of basis in DD?
majoritarian
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What phrase describes the disadvantage of majoritarian decisions
Tyranny of the majority
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Under DD what is the nature of the distinction between the state and the people?
No formal distinction
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What common event is an example of direct democracy?
Referendums
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What is the closest thing to a referendum in the US?
Initiative
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How does an initiative differ to a referendum?
It is law written by the people, referendums are simple yes/no to government-made laws
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What historical civilisation is an example of direct democracy?
Ancient Athens
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Under Burkean representation, what are reps. entitled to use as well as their "industry"?
Judgement
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Do burkean representatives simply represent the interests of constituents exactly?
No, they can use judgement and intellect to make the right decision, even if in contrast to consitutent opinion
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What is the opposite of Burkean representation?
Delegation`
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In a representative democracy suffrage is ...
Wide/universal
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Elections are..
free/fair
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civil rights are
wide/universal
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Legislatures make...
laws
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Decisions are reached on a ... basis
majoritarian
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Many representative democracies have a system of... between institutions to curb state power
checks and balances
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Public officials and institutions are... to the people
accountable
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Who scrutinises the executive?
Parliament
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Who scrutinises Parliament and when?
The people at election time
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There are a wide range of what 3 things in pluralism
Viewpoints, political parties, pressure groups
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Which country is a good example of a liberal democracy
Germany
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A liberal democracy has strong individual...
freedoms
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What word describes the strong system of checks and balances in a liberal democracy?
Constitutionalism
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What phrase (used earlier) describes oppression of minorities and is limited in a liberal democracy?
Tyranny of the majority
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Advantages of rep. democracy?
Experts in govt., accountability, relieves burden on public, only practical form, stable (lack of public involvement limits extremism) and pragmatic
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What two things could the UK's democracy evolve for the public to be able to do?
Initiatives and recall MPs.
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Weaknesses of rep. democracy?
Low turnout=low legitimacy, narrow choice, political parties powerful and elitist and minorities excluded
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Strengths of direct democracy?
purest form, big decisions require consent, educates public, direct involvement increases public engagement,
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Weaknesses of direct democracy?
Some issues too complex c, some issues cause irrational reaction , institutions may lose respect from people, tyranny of the majority, e.g California Prop. 8, Low turnouts lack legitimacy e.g London Mayor 34%, close referendum=unsatisfactory result
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What is an example of a close referendum delivering an unsatisfying result?
Welsh Devolution, yes=50.5, no=49.5
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4 reasons for referendums taking place?
govt. split over issue, entrench constitutional change, consent needed for important decision, constit. change effects governance
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2 referendums when govt. split over issue?
AV 2011 - No, Join EEC? 1975 - Yes
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3 referendums to entrench constitutional change?
Scotland change income tax rate? 1997 - Yes, Devolved govt. for Scotland? 1997 - Yes, Devolved Welsh govt.? 1997 - Yes
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Referendum when special consent needed?
Agree to Good Friday Agreement (devolved govt. for N.I.)? 1998 - Yes
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2 referendums for a constitutional change that affects how country is governed?
Elected London Mayor? 1998 - Yes, North-East regional assembly? 2004 - No
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Four measures to increase participation?
E-voting, compulsory voting, votes at 16, political education
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Advantages of e-voting
More direct, accessible, increase turnout, internet is good source of info.
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Disadvantages of e-voting
Vulnerable to hacking, false info. spreads easily, technical knowledge probably needed
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Advantages of compulsory voting
Increased turnout (legitimacy), forces public to consider issues, people get used to voting
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Disadvantages of compulsory voting
Abuses freedoms, costly to enforce, artificial results, cannot stop apathy
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When did the voting age drop form 21-18?
1969
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Advantages of votes at 16?
Makes young politically aware, increases engagement, makes political education relevant
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Disadvantages of votes at 16?
Some would not vote anyway, may be too young, parties will distort policy to attract young voters, preserve childhood
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Advantages of political education?
Increases knowledge, increases engagement
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Disadvantages of P.E?
May not create genuine interest, is expensive - therefore waste of resources
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3 ways in which participation is increasing
Certain pressure groups increasing, direct action increasing, and greater social media campaigns
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2 types of P.G growing?3
Environmental, old age
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2 examples of increased direct action?
tuition fees, Stop the War
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3 examples of social media campaigns
Obama 2008, road pricing, forests sell-off
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A legitimate govt is widely...?

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recognised

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Legitimacy could also be defined as the extent to which a government is ...

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Card 4

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Legitimacy is closely related to the concept of...

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Card 5

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In the democratic world, legitimacy comes from what type of event?

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