Defamation FC's

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Defamation - Communication must refer to the claimant
C must be referred to by name, class or complete description & D will be liable even if unintended when an ordinary, reasonable man (or 1 actual person) thought it referred to derogatory issues
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Defamation - Communication must be published
ISPs can be liable - Demon Internet Ltd [2001] & Search Engines cannot be liable - Metropolitan Int. Schools [2009] & Unless notified of comments and no action taken - Tamiz v Google [2013]
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Defamation - Communication must be defamatory
Lord Atkin in Sim v Stretch [1936] "Would the communication lower the plaintiff in the estimation if the right thinking members of society?" & S 7 Defamation Act 1996
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S 7 Defamation Act 1996 - Statements are defamatory if it would cause an ordinary, reasonable person to:
1. think less of the subject as a person 2. think less of the subject's ability to perform work 3. Shun or avoid the person 4. treat the subject as an object of ridicule
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4 types of Slander are actionable per se:
1. Imputing a criminal offence 2. Imputing a contagious disease 3. Imputing unfitness in office/calling 4. Imputing a lack of chastity
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2 Preliminary Questions
1. Locus Standii - standing to sue. 2. Is there serious harm?
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1. Locus Standii - standing to sue.
Corporations can sue - McDonalds v Steel and Morris [1997] & Public Bodies cannot sue - Derbyshire CC v Times News [1993] & Universities can sue - Duke v University of Salford [2013]
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2. Is there serious harm?
S1 Defamation Act 2013 - A statement is not defamatory unless it's publication has caused or is likely to cause serious harm to the reputation of the Claimant
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Defamation Defences
Truth, Honest Opinion, Privileged, Consent
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Defamation Defence - Truth
1. Truth (Def Act 2013 S 2) D needs to prove statement true (or find another publication which says it when he published)
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Defamation Defence - Honest Opinion
Honest Opinion (Def Act S3) 4 requirements -1. Statement of opinion 2. opinion is in public interest 3. an honest person could've held opinion 4. on basis of any facts in existence at time of publication
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Defamation Defence - Privilidge
3. Prviliges: Absolute, Qualified or Reynolds
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Defamation Defence - Consent
4. Consent - Chapman [1932]
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Defamation Remedies
Def Act 2013: S12 Court can order publication of summary of judgement. s13 Court can order removal of material & Def Act 1996 SS 2-4: Offers of Amends
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Defamation - Communication must be published

Back

ISPs can be liable - Demon Internet Ltd [2001] & Search Engines cannot be liable - Metropolitan Int. Schools [2009] & Unless notified of comments and no action taken - Tamiz v Google [2013]

Card 3

Front

Defamation - Communication must be defamatory

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

S 7 Defamation Act 1996 - Statements are defamatory if it would cause an ordinary, reasonable person to:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

4 types of Slander are actionable per se:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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