Core Science - Biology

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Animalia
A kingdom of organisms: multicellular, no cell wall, heterotrophic, have nucleus in cells.
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Plantae
A kingdom of organisms: multicellular, have chlorophyll, have cell walls, autotrophic, photosynthesise, cell have a nucleus.
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Fungi
A kingdom of organisms: multicellular, have cell walls, saprophytic, cells have a nucleus.
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Protoctista
A kingdom of organisms: usually unicellular, cells have a nucleus.
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Prokaryote
kingdom of organisms: unicellular, no nucleus.
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Species
A group of organisms with similar characteristics, which can successfully interbreed to produce fertile young.
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Heterotrophic
Get energy from other organisms
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Autotrophic
Makes its own food
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Saprophytic
Feeds off dead and decaying matter
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Binomial System
The system scientists use to name species, it consists of two latin names: the first is the genus, the second is the species. The genus starts with a capital letter but the species name doesn't.
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Ring Species
A group of related populations that live in a ring. Neighbouring populations can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, but populations that live firth apart cannot.
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Oviparous
Lays eggs.
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Viviparous
Gives birth to live young
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Homeothermic
Keeps its body temperature at a constant level. e.g... Mammals, Humans
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Poikilotherms
Body temperature varies depending on the surroundings and environment. e.g... Lizards have to lay in the sun to keep warm, the rocks radiate the heat.
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Mammals
A class of choredate: has lungs, are viviparous, are homeothermic
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Birds
A class of chordate: has lungs, are oviparous, are homeothermic
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Amphibians
A class of chordate: absorb oxygen through their skin, are oviparous, are poikilothermic
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Fish
A class of chordate: has gills, are mostly oviparous, are mostly poikilothermic
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Reptiles
A class of chordate: have lungs, are oviparous, are poikilothermic
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Genetic Variation
Variation that is inherited from an organism's parents
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Environmental Variation
Variation caused by an organism's lifestyle and surroundings
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Continuous Variation
A feature for which individuals in a population vary within a range. There are no distinct categories. e.g. Height
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Discontinuous Variation
A feature for which individuals in a population fall in to distinct categories.e.g Shoe size
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Normal Distribution Curve
AKA bell curve: a graph that shows continuous variation. Two extremes, with most people falling in the middle.
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Natural Selection
The process where the best adapted organisms survive, reproduce and pass on their genes
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Evolution
When the long term effects of natural selection leads to a characteristic becoming common place in a population
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Adaptations
Beneficial features that help an organism to survive
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Resistance
The ability to be unaffected by disease or poison
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Specification
When the long term effects of evolution lead to the creation of a new species, that is so genetically different that it can no longer successfully reproduce with its founder species
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Reproductive Isolation
When organisms are blocked from reproducing by a physical barrier
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Gene
A section of DNA that codes for a specific protein
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Nucleus
The part of the cell that contains genetic information
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Chromsome
Singular molecule of DNA coiled up.
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Alleles
Different versions of the same gene.
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Genotype
The combination of genes you inherit for a specific characteristic
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Phenotype
The observable appearance of a characteristic
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Dominant
Type of allele: will result in the characteristic being expressed whether you have 1 or two copies of the allele
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Recessive
Type of allele: will only result in the characteristic being expressed if you have both copies of the allele
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Gametes
Sex cells.
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Homozygous
Two of the same alleles of a gene.
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Heterozygous
Two different alleles of a gene.
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Cystic fibrosis
A recessive disease.
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Sickle Cell Anaemia
A co-dominant disease.
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Cystic Fibrosis causes...
The body produces lots of thick sticky mucus which blocks the air passages, gut and pancreas
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Sickle Cell Anaemia causes...
Red blood cells are sickle shaped and block capillaries
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Cystic fibrosis symptoms
Breathing difficulties, lung infections, malnutrition, infertility
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Sickle cell anaemia symptoms
Tiredness, painful joints and muscles, fever, anaemia, jaundice
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Homeostasis
Maintaining a stable internal environment.
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Thermoregulation
The regulation of body temperature
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Glucoregulation
The regulation of blood glucose levels.
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Osmoregulation
The regulation of water in the body.
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Negative feedback
The process by which homeostasis works: stumbles, receptor, control centre, effector, response.
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Hypothalamus
The part of the brain which controls body temperature and other things
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Vasodilation
Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin widen (in order to lower body temperature)
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Vasoconstriction
Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin contract (in order to reduce heat loss, to warm up)
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Sense organs
Organs that detect stimuli that you need to react to, e.g eyes, ears
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Stimulus
A change in environment.
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Receptors
Groups of cells in sense organs which are sensitive to stimuli, and convet stimulus energy to electrical energy
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Effectors
Muscles and glands that carry out the necessary change
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Response
The result of the action of the effector (e.g body temperature returning to 37 degrees)
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CNS (Central nervous system)
The brain and spinal cord
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Neurones
Nerve cells which transmit nerve impulses
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Sensory neurones
Carry nerve impulses from the receptors to the CNS. They have long dendrons and short axons
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Motor neurones
Carry nerve impulses from the CNS to the effectors. Many short dendrons and one long axon
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Relay neurones
Carry nerve impulses inside the CNS from sensory neurones to motor neurones. Short dendrons and axons.
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Dendrons
Branches which carry nerve impulses towards the cell body
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Dendrites
The tiny branches of dendrons which are connected to cells
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Axons
Branches which convey the electrical impulses away from the cell body
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Myelin Sheath
Insulating envelope that surrounds an axon
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Synapse
A small gap where one neurone connects to another
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Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit impulses across synapses
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Reflexes
Automatic responses to stimuli
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Reflex arc
When nerve impulses travel straight from the receptors to the CNS to the effector, bypassing the brain. A reflex reaction.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A kingdom of organisms: multicellular, have chlorophyll, have cell walls, autotrophic, photosynthesise, cell have a nucleus.

Back

Plantae

Card 3

Front

A kingdom of organisms: multicellular, have cell walls, saprophytic, cells have a nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A kingdom of organisms: usually unicellular, cells have a nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

kingdom of organisms: unicellular, no nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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