Computing - Software

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Software
A set of instructions that perform a certain task is called a program. Programs in general are known as software.
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Writing Software
Writing software involves using programming languages.
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Machine Code
Binary bit pattern. Is a low level language, works low down at hardware level.
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High-Level Languages
Allow the programmer to set out algorithms without always having to worry about every action carried out about the CPU.
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System Software
Operating systems, device drivers, firmware, serves, utilities and interfaces.
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Operating System
Large collection of programs that tells the hardware what to do.
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Process
Computer program that is currently being executed
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Multi-Tasking
Ensures each process gets attended to by the CPU in the most efficient way
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Security
Protects processes and users from each other
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Command Line
Type in commands. Allows a great deal of customisation.
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Graphical User Interface
GUI for short. Uses icons to represent resources and actions
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Voice Input
Difficult to product and so is an important development for the future.
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Windows
Powerful proprietary multi-tasking operating system developed by Microsoft.
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DLL Files
Dynamic Linked Library. Programmers can access routines stored in these in order to produce apps that look right for Windows.
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Unix
Family of operating systems found on high-end servers and workstations. Very secure and robust.
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Mac OS
Apple's proprietary operating system, which is a variant of Unix.
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iOS
Operating system designed to work with Apple iPhone. It is a proprietary system that is not allowed to run on non-Apple devices.
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Linux
Designed to behave like Unix although it was developed independently by Linus Torvalds. Free of charge.
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Peripheral
These allow computer systems to input, output and store data.
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Device Drivers
A program that enables communication between computer and peripheral
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Interrupts
A signal to the operating system to stop what its doing and perform a different task
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Applet
A small app that performs one specific task
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Firmware
Software that is stored on memory chips. Consists of small programs that are used to control an electronic device like a TV remote.
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Servers
Software that responds to the requests of other programs, known as clients.
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Utility
A small program designed to do limited maintenance tasks. Usually installed with the operating system
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Virus Detection
The process of finding potentially harmful viruses in the computer system
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Spyware
Malicious software that detects what a user is doing and sends it back to the hacker
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Trojan
Harmful software that is disguised as something useful. Many masquerade as anti-spyware programmes.
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Firewall
Restrict outgoing and incoming access to certain network addresses.
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Disk Organisation
Process of arranging files on a secondary storage device
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Defragmenters
A utility that brings together file fragments so it creates free space in one area
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Editor
Software used for entering code when writing a program, like Notepad
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Pretty Printing
An editor that lays out code in an easy to read way
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Compilers
Translator programs that convert high-level source code into machine code that the CPU can run
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Interpreters
Translate high-level code into machine code like compilers but they do it a line at a time and execute as they go.
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Assembly Language
Low-level programming language that uses more memorable mnemonic codes to represent machine-level code. Each instructions represents just one machine operation
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Assembler
Software that translates assembly language into machine code
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Linker
Software that combines object code modules to make a complete application
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Off The Shelf Software
Software that is aimed at many many users and sold 'as is'. Often bug free.
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Custom Written Software
Software developed specially for one or a few customers. Usually have more bugs than off the shelf as it hasn't been tried by lots of people. Also is more expensive.
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Proprietary Software
Owned by the developers. Someone can be contacted if things go wrong.
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Open Source Software
Source code is made public so anyone can adapt it. It comes with no guarantees or contracts but the standard is usually very high. Community is quick to fix errors.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Writing software involves using programming languages.

Back

Writing Software

Card 3

Front

Binary bit pattern. Is a low level language, works low down at hardware level.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Allow the programmer to set out algorithms without always having to worry about every action carried out about the CPU.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Operating systems, device drivers, firmware, serves, utilities and interfaces.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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