Cold War in Asia - Philippines

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What did Roosevelt promise the Philippines in 1934?
Independence by 1946
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Why had the Philippines been offered independence by 1946?
The USA thought they were an economic burden and wanted to reduce Filipino immigration to America.
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Where was there a lot of unrest in the Philippines?
Luzon
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Why was there unrest in Luzon?
The population was fast increasing and there was land shortage whilst landlords put pressure on wanting more crops.
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What happened to the Philippines in the war?
The Japanese drove the USA out of the Philippines early in the war, but it was retaken by MacArthur in 1944.
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When were the Philippines granted independence?
4th July 1946
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Who was the first president of the Philippines?
Manuel Roxas
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When was Roxas president?
1946-1948
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How did MacArthur help Roxas win the election?
MacArthur had gained much respect in the Philippines. He decreed that Roxas had not collaborated with the Japanese and gave him access to the US army radio. Voters presumed that Roxas was helped by the US soldiers on patrol.
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What percentage of the vote did Roxas win?
54%
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What problems did Roxas face in power?
The Philippines had been devastated by years of occupation. Manila was in ruins, and the agricultural areas were wasteland. The USA were willing to give aid but wanted great economic and territorial concessions in return.
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What act was passed in the Philippines 1946?
Bell Trade Act
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What was agreed in the Bell Trade Act?
The only foreign good they could buy were American and they could not sell products that might cause competition with the USA or quotas were impose. Filipino Peso was pegged to the US dollar. The USA had equal rights to natural resources.
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When was the Territorial Concession agreed?
1947
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What was agreed with regard to territorial concession?
US obtained 99-year leases on 22 military and naval bases including Clark field and Subic Bay. These were to be sovereign US territory where the US had the right to try Americans for crimes They had jurisdiction over Filipinos working on the bases
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When was the Bell Trade act put through and why?
Two days before independence, because he only needed a majority, but after independence he would have needed a 3/4 majority.
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What did he do to get the 3/4 majority needed on the motion granting equal rights to the US?
he prevented 11 opposition seats, 6 of which were Huks
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What happened in March 1947?
A referendum of the issue of US Parity Rights was voted on in March 1947. Only 40% of people voted, and Roxas made sure that they voted “correctly.” Because he did not allow six members of the Huks seats, it triggered a rebellion.
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How many Huk guerrillas had fought against the Japanese by 1944?
10,000
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What were the Huks ordered to do after the war?
Surrender their weapons, although many were just simply hidden.
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When did the Huks rebel?
1946
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How were the peasantry oppressed?
Roxas' military police worked with the army of the US.
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Who was pardoned in the Philippines and for what?
Many landowners and governing elite were pardoned war time collaborators
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In 1948 how many guerrillas were there in Central Luzon?
5000
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In 1950 how many guerrillas were there in Central Luzon?
12,000
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How much economic aid was given by the USA to help combat the Huks?
$7.2 million
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Why did the Huk's fail?
It did not spread past Luzon, and they had insufficient manpower. Food was short. The USA aided Roxas and his successor Quirino
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Who was Roxas' successor?
Quirino
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How much aid did the USA give between 1951-1956
$500 million
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What advice did Quirino follow in 1950?
He made Ramon Magsaysay Secretary of the department of National Defence.
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What did Magsaysay do?
Persuaded the US to increase funding, reformed army, offered amnesty to Huks reducing their numbers. He also made life fairer for peasants as they could keep more harvest.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why had the Philippines been offered independence by 1946?

Back

The USA thought they were an economic burden and wanted to reduce Filipino immigration to America.

Card 3

Front

Where was there a lot of unrest in the Philippines?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was there unrest in Luzon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened to the Philippines in the war?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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