Coasts key concepts/words

Constructive wave
Distant weather systems generate waves in open ocean. Low surging with long wavelength. Strong swash, weak backwash. Beach gain. Associated with gentle beach profile.
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Destructive wave
Local storms responsible for waves. High plunging with short wavelength. Weak swash, strong backwash. Beach loss (destructive). Associated with steeper beach profile.
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Rip current
Strong localised underwater current. Formed when a series of plunging waves build up water at top of beach. Met with resistance by breaking waves water returning down beach is forced under water.
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Mechanical weathering
Breakup of rocks without any chemical changes. eg. freeze thaw, salt crystallization and wetting and drying.
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Biological weathering.
Breakdown of rocks through organic activity. eg. plant roots grow into small cracks breaking cliff face.
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Chemical weathering
Involves a chemical reaction. Eg solution or carbonation.
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Mass movement
Downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity.
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Rockfall
The collapse or sudden breaking away of rock fragments at a cliff face. Often caused by mechanical weathering. Scree often forms temporary store when gradually transported it is input into the sediment cell.
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Runoff
When overland flow occurs down a slope or cliff-face, small particles are moved down-slope to enter the littoral zone.
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Landslip or slump
A landslide or slump differs from a landslide in that its slide surface is curved rather than flat. Landslips commonly occur in weak and unconsolidated clay and sands.
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Hydraulic action
Force of the water as it crashes against the coastline is called hydraulic action.
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Wave quarrying
Action of waves breaking against unconsolidated material such as sands and gravel.
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Abrasion
As sediment is dragged up and down or across the shoreline, erodes and smooths rocky surfaces.
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Solution/corosion
Weak acids in seawater can dissolve alkaline rock (such as chalk or limestone) or the alkaline cement that bonds rock particles together.
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Traction
the rolling of coarse sediment along the sea bed that is to heavy to be picked up by the sea.
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Saltation
Sediment bounced along the seabed, light enough to be picked up or dislodged but too heavy to remain within the flow of water.
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Suspension
Smaller, lighter sediment picked up and carried within the flow of water.
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Long-shore drift
the movement of material along a coast by waves which approach at an angle to the shore but recede directly away from it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Destructive wave

Back

Local storms responsible for waves. High plunging with short wavelength. Weak swash, strong backwash. Beach loss (destructive). Associated with steeper beach profile.

Card 3

Front

Rip current

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mechanical weathering

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Biological weathering.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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