Climate

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weather
the day to day atmospheric conditions we experience
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climate
average weather conditions in an area over time
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temperature
depends on amount of solar energy received, also on altitude.
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precipitation
determined by global atmospheric circulation patterns which creates high bands of rainfall at the equator and temperate regions and low rainfall at the tropics and poles.
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what 4 factors affect climate?
latitude, altitude, continentality, wind.
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latitude
distance and angle from the equator
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altitude
temperature decreases with height
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continentality
distance from the sea. land heats and cools quicker than the sea.
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wind
temperatures depend on the area they have come from.
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what is a biome?
vegetation that can naturally survive in a region form call large scale eco systems (biomes)
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climatic climax community
determined by the climate (tropical rainforest)
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plagioclimax
when people have interfered with with the climatic climax community relationship (grassland)
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can climate change naturally?
yes through short term cycles and long term cycles
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short term climate change?
may make the climate warmer (experienced in bronze age 4,000 years ago) or colder for a short period of time (little ice age 500 years ago)
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long term climate change?
may cause ice ages or interglacial periods.
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what causes short term climate change?
volcanic eruptions, variations in solar energy, increase in albedo effect, el nino and la nina.
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how do volcanic eruptions affect climate?
large amounts of sulphur dioxide and dust in the stratosphere causes an aerosol effect (solar radiation is reflected)
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how does variation in solar energy affect climate?
11 year cycle of sunspots decreases the amount of sun that can reach the earths atmosphere.
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how does the increase in the albedo effect affect climate?
it causes a positive feedback loop, lower temperature causes more snow causing more reflection, whereas darker areas e.g. vegetation absorbs more energy...increasing the cooling effect creating the loop.
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el nino?
warm surface water in the eastern pacific.
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la nina
unusually cold surface water in the eastern and central pacific.
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how do el nino and la nina affect climate?
they distort the jet stream flows (high speed winds that circulate the world at high altitudes)
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what causes long term climate change?
milankovitch cycles, changing shape and position of continents, ocean circulation, major volcanic activity.
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what is the milankovitch cycle?
long term variation in the orbit, tilt and eccentricity of the earth.
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eccentricity?
changes in the degree of roundness of the earths spherical shape.
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how does the milankovitch cycles affect climate?
a greater tilt creates a more varied seasonal climate.
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how do the changing shape and position of continents affect climate?
this affects the geometry of oceans and ocean circulation patterns. oceans transfer heat and moisture round the earth.
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how does ocean circulation affect climate?
the ocean conveyer belt transfers heat energy from the tropics to the poles, this is called thermohaline circulation and is driven by deep ocean currents.
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what is the evidence for climate change?
ice cores, CO2 emissions, glacial deposits.
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greenhouse effect?
lower atmosphere heated by long wave radiation emitted from the earths surface, it is then absorbed by greenhouse gases
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global warming?
is also called the advanced greenhouse effect. there is a greater concentration of greenhouse gases in the earths atmosphere therefore increases warming occurs.
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Card 2

Front

average weather conditions in an area over time

Back

climate

Card 3

Front

depends on amount of solar energy received, also on altitude.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

determined by global atmospheric circulation patterns which creates high bands of rainfall at the equator and temperate regions and low rainfall at the tropics and poles.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

latitude, altitude, continentality, wind.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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