Classification, Variation and Inheritance

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How do we classify organisms?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus & Species
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What are species?
Groups of organisms that have many features in common
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What is a genus?
A group that contains several species with similar charecterisitics
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What is a family?
A group comprising of several genera
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What is an order?
A group comprising of several families
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What is a class?
A group comprising of several orders
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What is a phylum?
A group comprising of several classes
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What are the Five Kingdoms?
Animalia, plantae, fungi, protoctista & prokaryota
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Characteristics of animalia? (4)
Multicellular, no cell walls, no chlorophyll & feed heterotrophically
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Characteristics of plantae? (4)
Multicellular, cell walls, chlorophyll & feed autotrophically
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Characterisitcs of fungi? (4)
Multicellular, cell walls, no chlorophyll & feed saprophytically
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Characteristics of protoctista? (2)
Unicellular, nucleus
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Characteristics of prokaryota? (2)
Unicellular, no nucleus
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What are the main characteristics of the phylum Chordata?
Animals with a supporting rod running through the length of the body, an example of this being the backbone in vertebrates
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How do scientists put vertebrate into groups?
Oxygen absorption (lungs, gills and skin), reproduction (internal or external fertilisation and oviparous or viviparous) & thermoregulation (Homeotherms and poikilotherms)
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How do organisms adapt to their environment?
Over time, organisms evolve features which help them to survive in their environment. For example, the camel has wide feet to spread its weight more easily on the sand. Animals need to adapt in order to become better than other competitiors.
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How have organisms adapted to survive in polar regions? (Give an example)
One example of an organism that has adapted to its environment is the penguin in the Antarctic which has evolved to have blubber (to keep it warm and give it buoyancy), bo streamlined (to help it swim faster), webbed feet (to propel it further), str
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What is variation?
The slight variations between individuals belonging to the same population of organisms
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What is over-production?
The production of more young than will to survive to adulthood by most organisms
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Why does struggle for existence occur?
Because populations do not generally increase rapidly in size therefore, there must be considerable competition for survival between the organisms
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Why do organisms develop more advanced characteristics?
In order to survive the struggle to escape extinction.
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What happens when advantageous characteristics are inherited?
Better adapted organisms are more likely to reproduce successfully by passing on the advantageous characteristics to their offspring.
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What is gradual change?
Over a period of time, the proportion of individuals with the advantageous characteristics in the population ill increase compared to the proportion of the individuals with poorly adapted characteristics, and the poorly adapted characteristics may be
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Give three examples of continuous variation.
Height, IQ & weight.
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Give three examples of discontinuous variation.
Earlobe attachment, tongue-rolling-ability & eye colour.
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What are the two types of variation?
Genetic & environmental.
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What is genetic variation caused by?
Mutation or reproduction.
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What is environmental variation caused by?
An organisms variation (acquired characteristics).
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How does speciation occur as a result of geographical isolation?
Speciation occurs when some members of a species are split up from the rest of their species. They develop new adaptations to help them thrive in their environment, sometimes these isolated members adapt so much that they are completely different to
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What is Darwin's theory?
Charles Darwin created a theory which suggested that sometimes a member of a species is born with a useful mutation. If the mutation is good, the organism will live to reproduce and pass its mutation on.
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What is the nucleus?
The nucleus is the controlling organel of the cell which contains chromosomes, in which genes are located.
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What is an allele?
A different form of a gene.
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What is a dominant allele?
A dominant form of a gene.
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What is a recessive allele?
A recessive form of a gene.
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What does homozygous mean?
When there are two dominant alleles or two recessive alleles.
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What does heterozygous mean?
When there is a dominant allele AND a recessive allele.
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What is phenotype?
What an organism looks like.
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What is genotype?
The genes of an organism.
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What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?
Sufferers are immune to malaria; don't have enough haemoglobin; and, their red blood cells tighten up and cause blockages in the bloodstream when the sufferer is tired or cold.
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Card 2


What are species?


Groups of organisms that have many features in common

Card 3


What is a genus?


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Card 4


What is a family?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is an order?


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