Unicellular- Made of a single cell.
Multicellular- Made of many cells.
Autotroph- The organisms make their own food, via photosynthesis.
Heterotroph- These organisms eat and digest other organisms.
Saprophytic- These organisms eat and digest organisms externally.
Animalia- Multicellular; Heterotrophic feeders so no chlorophyll; no cell walls; complex cell structure with nucleus.
Plantae- Multicellular, autotrophic feeders using chlorophyll; cell walls made of cellulose; complex cell structure with nucleus.
Fungi- Multicellular; cell walls not made of cellulose; saprophytic feeders so no chlorophyll; complex cell structure with nucleus.
Protoctista- Mostly unicellular (a few are multicellular); complex cell structure with nucleus.
Prokaryotae- Unicellular; simple cell structure with no nucleus.
How do mammals keep their internal body temperature constant?
- Produce goosebumps.
- Hair follicles stand up or lay down.
What is a species?
A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
What is a hybrid?
A hybrid is a mixture of 2 different species that cannot reproduce.
- The first part is the genus and this is shared by closely related species.
- The second part of the name defines the particular species in the genus.
ORDER Ordered (by)
Animalia Animal Animalia Animal
Chordata Spinal Chord Chordata Spinal Chord
Mamalia Mammal Mamalia Mammal
Carnivora Meat Eater Omnivora
Felidae Cat Family Hominidae Man like
Panthero Big Cat Hemo
- Variation is the differences in characteristics.
- Variation exists between animals of the same species and between different species.
- Variation is essential for evolution.
There are 2 types of variation:
- Continuous Variation- A feature that can be measured and given a value from a range of values.
- Discontinuous Variation- A feature that cannot be measured but is one of a few distinct options.
Evolution is the gradual change in a species features in order to adapt to change in the environment. Sometimes the change is so dramatic that a new species is formed. This is called Speciation.
The changes in the environment is called Selection Pressure.
Darwin came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection- two scientists inspired his theory:
- Lyell, a geologist demonstrated that the earth is a lot older than the bible suggested.
- Mattheus, an economist showed that the more children a family had, the more chance it had of starving.
Characteristics are passed down through the mother and the father to the children through genes, 23 Chromosones come from the mum and 23 come from the dad.
Gene- A section of Chromosone which codes a specific characteristic and a section of DNA that makes a protein.
Chromosones- Long strands of DNA.
DNA- The molecule that genes are made of.
Protein- Type of molecule that genes code for.
Bases- Chemicals in DNA that carry the genetic code.
Amino acid- The small molecules that join to make proteins.
Allele- A version of a gene.
Genes and Genetic Disorders
Hetrozygous- More than one allele.
Most diseases are caused by a combination of environment and inherited risk alleles. A few diseases are caused by the inheritance of faulty diseased alleles.
Recessive- Dominant- only need to inherit one faulty copy.