Circulatory System

Single - celled organisms
Can obtain nutrients and excrete waste simply by diffusion
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Multi cellular animals
Overcome the limitations of diffusion by having a specialised circulatory system
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What does the circulatory system comprise of?
A pump, a fluid and vessels
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What are the two types of circulatory system?
Open or closed
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Open circulatory systems
Consist of a heart that pumps a fluid through short vessels and into a large cavity
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Closed circulatory system
Can either be single or double - humans have a more complex, double circulatory system
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The heart circuit
Carries deoxygenated blood fork the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the heart
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The body circuit
Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the cells to be used, and deoxygenated blood back to the heart
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Cardiac muscle
The muscle the heart is made of
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Coronary arteries
The heart supplies itself with oxygen and nutrients through the coronary arteries
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Coronary vein
Carries waste products away from the heart
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Ventricles
Pump the blood out of the heart
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Atria
Receive blood at a relatively low pressure from the veins and are not required to pump the blood very far
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Septum
Keeps the blood on the right side of the heart and the blood on the left side of the heart separate
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Arteries
Transport blood away from the heart
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Veins
Transport blood towards the heart
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Valve
Only opens in one direction to keep the blood flowing one way
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Cordae Tendinae
When the valve is closed the cordae tendinae is fully extended so the valve can only be opened in one direction
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Capillaries
Location of gas exchange - where the diffusion of the reactants and products of respiration occurs
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Lumen
The hole in the middle of a blood vessel
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Heart Rate
The number of times the heart ventricles beat in one minute
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Stroke volume
The volume of blood pushed into the aorta in each beat
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Cardiac output
The volume of blood pushed into the aorta each minute. SV x HR.
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Thermoreceptors
Detect change in body temperature
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Hypothalamus
The area of your brain responsible for controlling temperature
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Epidermis
The layer of cells on the outer surface of a body or organ such as a leaf. It contains the receptors that are sensitive to the blood temperature in the brain
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Dermis
A deeper layer of skin just below the epidermis
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Vasoconstriction
Less blood flows near the surface of the skin, so less nerdy is transferred to the surroundings. It is the narrowing of the blood cells.
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Vasodilation
The widening of the blood cells
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Thermoregulation
The process your body uses to keep its internal temperature steady
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Red blood cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in the body
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Bioconcave
Disc shape red blood cells have
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Haemoglobin
A red pigment containing iron.
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Oxyhaemoglobin
Formed in the lungs when haemoglobin binds to oxygen
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White blood cells
Help fight infection
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Phagocytes
White blood cells that can change shape to engulf unwelcome microorganisms
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Phagocytosis
The process of phagocytes engulfing unwanted microorganisms
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Lymphocytes
White blood cells that produce antibodies against microorganisms
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Antitoxins
Neutralise any toxins produced by microorganisms
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Platelets
Small fragments of cells which help the blood to clog at a wound, which stops all your blood pouring out and microorganisms getting in
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Plasma
A pale straw coloured liquid which carried everything in the blood
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Adrenaline
A hormone released by the adrenal glands. It prepares the body for fight or flight.
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Thyroxine
A hormone released by the thyroid gland. It regulates metabolic rate.
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Metabolic Rate
The speed at which chemical reactions in the body occur
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Memory lymphocytes
A type of cell produced by lymphocytes that remembers pathogens that have been destroyed by antibodies before, so the same pathogens cannot re-infect
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Immunisation
When a person is given a weaker version of the pathogen to bring about immunity by producing lymphocytes which create specific antibodies for the antigen on that pathogen
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Herd immunity
When enough of the population have been vaccinated against a diseas, then the likelihood of the disease spreading to people who haven’t been vaccinated is greatly reduced
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Antigen
A toxin which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies
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Antibody
Special Y shaped proteins produced by lymphocytes in response to antigens
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Monoclonal antibody
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells and consisting of identical antibody molecules
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Overcome the limitations of diffusion by having a specialised circulatory system

Back

Multi cellular animals

Card 3

Front

A pump, a fluid and vessels

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Open or closed

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Consist of a heart that pumps a fluid through short vessels and into a large cavity

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Excellent resource

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