Chemistry C4

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What is an atom?
Building block of everything,yet incredibly tiny.
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What's inside a nucleus?
Contains protons (making it positive) and neutrons.
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Where is the nucleus?
Inside the centre of an atom. However, tiny compared to the atom.
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Where are electrons?
Found around the nucleus, small but cover a lot of space.
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W/hat does the volume of the electrons orbits determine?
How large the atom is.
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How are electrons arranged?
In shells around the nucleus. The shells are the explanation for chemistry.
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What are protons?
They are heavy particles with a positive charge.
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What are neutrons?
Neutrons are heavy particles but with no charge (neutral)
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What are electrons?
Electrons are tiny particles and are negatively charged.
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Do neutral atoms have a charge?
No, there is no overall charge.
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What is the charge of an electron the same as?
It is the same size as the charge of the proton but OPPOSITE (only in neutral atoms)
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In a neutral atom, the number of protons are equal to...?
The number of electrons.
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What happens if electrons are added or removed?
The atom becomes charged (either positive or negative) and becomes an ION.
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What do the number of protons in an atom decide?
What element it is.
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When Lithium is heated, what colour is produced?
Lithium has a dsiinctive red flame when heated.
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WHen Sodium is heated, what colour is produced?
Sodium produces an orange/yellow flame.
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When potassium is heated, what colour is produced?
Potassium produces a lilac flame.
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What can these colours help to identify?
They help to identify a metal in a compound.
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How are the colours in fireworks produced?
The colours are produced by the reaction of heating different elements.
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What happens when electrons in atoms are heated?
They are excited and release energy as light.
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How are line spectrums formed?
The wavelengths of the light energy emitted by electrons are recorded to make the line spectrum.
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Why do different elements have a different line spectrum?
Because each element has a different electron arrangement, therefore each element has a different pattern of wavelengths. So a different line spectrum.
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What do line spectrums identify?
The element. New elements, Caesium and rubidium were both identified by spectroscopy.
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What is spectroscopy?
The practical technique used to produce line spectrums.
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Who was Dobereiner and what did he do in 1829?
Dobereiner began to put lists of elements into groups based on their chemical patterns.
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What are triads?
Dobereiner put elements into groups of 3, which he called triads.
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What was different about the middle element of the triad?
They had a relative mass that was an average of the other two.
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What did Newlands' discover?
He discovered that when you arranged the elements in order of relative atomic mass, every eighth element had similar properties. He listed some of the known ones in rows of seven. The sets of 8 were called Newlands' Octaves.
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What did Dmitri Mendeleev do in 1869?
He put 50 known elements in order of atomic mass but left gaps to keep elements with similar properties in the same vertical groups.
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What was Mendeleev prepared to do?
He left very large gaps in the first two rows before the transition metals come in on the third row.
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What did the gaps left by Mendeleev help predict?
They predicted the properties of undiscovered elements at the time. When found, they fitted the pattern e.g. germanium
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How Is the elements in the periodic table laid out?
They are laid out in order of increasing proton number. This means that there are repeating patterns in the properties of the elements.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Contains protons (making it positive) and neutrons.


What's inside a nucleus?

Card 3


Inside the centre of an atom. However, tiny compared to the atom.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Found around the nucleus, small but cover a lot of space.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


How large the atom is.


Preview of the back of card 5
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