chemistry c2

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substance made of only one type of atom
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small particle made from one or more atom bonded together
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substance made from 2 or more different elements bonded together
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smallest particle of matter
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substance made from 2 or more elements not joined
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what is used to seperate sollids from liquids
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mixture of liquids separated using the differences in boiling point
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fractional distillation
liquid being distilled having similar boiling points, providing large surface area for condensation
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used to separate mixtures of solid dissolved in liquid
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have same proton but different neutron
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give 2 examples of giant covalent structures
diamond & graphite
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giant covalent structure
crystal made of atoms joined with covalent bonds
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formation of diamond
made of carbon atoms arranged bonded in a pyramid, with high boiling point
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formation of graphite
made of carbon atoms with weak bonds between sheets, sheets can easily separate making graphite lubricant
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giant ionic structure
repeated pattern of positive and negative ions
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properties of ionic compounds
conducts electricity because ions are free to move towards the positive and negative electrodes.
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atoms in a molecule are joined by what
strong covalent bond
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what happens in a solid molecule
each neighbour is held close b weak intermolecular forces
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what happens when a substance melts
the weak intermolecular forces break, not the strong covalent bonds
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what do molecular compounds have
low melting points and evaporate easily due to weak intermolecular forces
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covalent bonding
forms between two atoms, shared pair of electrons
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ionic bonding
attraction between two oppositely charged ions
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mixture of metals, harder than pure metals layers are distorted
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what enables metals to conduct heat and electricty
delocalised electrons in metals
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what polymer is soften/melted easily when heated
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what polymer doesn't soften/melt when heated
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study of small particles between 1 - 100
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relative atomic mass
average value for the isotope of an element
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percentage yield
amount of product collected over amount of product poss x 100%
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why is it important to maximise yield and minimise energy wasted
to conserve the Earth's limited resources and reduce pollution
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why is it not possible to get 100% yield
because reactions may not be complete, other reactions may occur
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reversible reactions
products of the reaction can react to make the original
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what is chemical analysis used for
identify food additives
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what can detect and identify artificial colours
paper chromatography
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how does extracting aluminium happen
by electrolysis. 1. aluminium oxide dissolved in molten 2. placed in a large carbon vessel 3. anode made of carbon lowered into electrolyte eg. aluminium gains electrons to make liquid Al3 + 3e- > Al
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electricity is used to break down compounds down into their elements.
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how does electrolysis of copper sulphate happen
electrlysed using carbon electrodes, producing o2 at anode.
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exothermic reaction
gets hotter, temperature increases. E.g. combustion of fuels, displacement reactions
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endothermic reaction
gets colder, temp decreases. E.g dissolving of salts, thermal decomposition
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substances that speed up a reaction without getting used up
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increasing what increases the rate of reaction
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increasing the what of a solution increases the rate of reaction
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electrolysis of sodium chloride
electrolysed, chloride gas is produces and hydrogen gas at cathode.
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3 reasons why we electroplate
1. make object look more attractive 2. protect metal object from corroding 3. increase hardness
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equation for acid mixing with metal
acid + metal > salt + hydrogen
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what is sulphuric acid used for in industry
1. steel making 2. paper making
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what rocks does calcium carbonate make
1. chalk 2. limestone
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