Chemistry

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  • Created on: 21-03-15 15:25
How to test for an acid
Turns blue litmus paper red
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How to test for a base
Turns red litmus paper blue
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Examples of an acid
Hydrolic acid, vinegar, lemon
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Examples of a base
Sodium hydroxide, soap, baking soda
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What are alkalis?
Soluable bases
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How to acid and bases react?
Acids and bases react to form a salt and water. This is known as a neutralisation reaction. The hydrogen in the acid is replaced with a metal from the base. e.g. HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H2O.
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How are acids and bases neutralised?
Acids and bases are neutralised in a titration reaction. The acid is placed in a burette, and the base is placed in a conical flask.
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What is an element?
An element is a substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. An element is made up of only one type of atom.
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What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest part of an element that still has the properties of that element. Atoms are made of sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons.
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What are isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
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What is a molecule?
A molecule is the smallest part of a compound that can exist on its own. Molecules are formed when two or more atoms bond together.
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What is a compound?
A compound has its own properties, which are different to those of the elements the compound is made of. For example, NaCl (table salt) consists of sodium and chlorine. A compound is formed when two or more elements chemically combined
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What is a mixture?
A mixture consists of two or more elements which are mixed together but are not chemically combined
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What are the different was of separating mixtures?
Filtration, chromatography, distillation, evaporation
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What is matter?
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.
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What is the name of the first group in the periodic table?
The alkali metals
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What is the name of the second group?
The alkaline earth metals
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What is the seventh group called?
The halogens
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What is the eighth group called?
The noble gases
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What does air consist of?
Air cosists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen,
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How to make oxygen
Oxygen is prepared by the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide using manganese dioxide as a cataylast. 2H2O2 + MnO2 -> 2H2O + O2.
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How to make carbon dioxide
Carbon Dioxide is prepared by the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. 2HCl + CaCO3 -> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O.
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How to test for oxygen
Relights a glowing splint
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How to test for carbon dioxide
Turns limewater milky
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How to test for water
Turns cobalt chloride paper from blue to pink
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What are the five stages of water treatment?
Screening, settling, filtration, chlorination, fluoridation.
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What is the difference between soft and hard water?
Soft water is water that forms a lather easily with soap. Hard water does not form a lather easily with soap.
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How is water hardness caused?
Water hardness is caused by the presence of dissolved calcium ions.
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How do you remove water hardness?
Hardness in water is removed by distillation or using an ion exchange resin.
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What is electrolysis?
Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis.Hydrogen is formed at the negative electrode, oxygen is formed at the positive electrode. A Hoffman voltmeter is used in electrolysis of water.
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What is an alloy?
An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin. Steel is a mixture of iron and carbon. Brass is a mixture of copper and zinc.
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What is an activity series?
The activity series is a list of metals in decreasing order of reactivity
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What are the properties of metal?
Usually solids(except for mercury) Malleable, Good conductors of heat and electricity Lustrous (shiny) appearance, Ductile, Usually very dense,High melting points, Usually corrode
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How to test for a base

Back

Turns red litmus paper blue

Card 3

Front

Examples of an acid

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Examples of a base

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are alkalis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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