Chemistry paper 2

What are the elements in group 1 of the periodic table known as?
alkali metals.
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What do the alkali metals have that are the same properties as typical metals?
good conductors of heat and electricity, shiny when freshly cut.
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What do they also have compared to most metals?
are soft(you can cut through them with a knife), have relatively low melting points (but are all solids)
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Does the reactivity of the alkali metals increase as you go down the group?
Yes.
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Are lithium, sodium and potassium less dense than water and what is the result if they are?
Yes they are less dense so they can float.
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where are lithium, sodium and potassium stored?
They are stored in oil.
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Why are lithium, sodium and potassium stored in oil?
To keep air and water away.
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What are the elements in group 7 on the periodic table known as?
They are known as the halogens.
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What happens as you go down group 7?
The melting points increase, boiling points increase.
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What happens when simple molecular substances melt or boil?
Weak intermolecular forces are overcome, the strong covalent bonds joining atoms together in each molecule do not break.
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What does a halogen atom have in its outer shell?
several electrons.
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What happens when halogens react with metals?
halogen atoms gain electrons and are reduced.
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What can a more reactive halogen displace?
A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen form its compounds.
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When halogens dissolve in water, what do they form?
They form aqueous solutions such as 'chlorine water'.
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Is chlorine more reactive than bromine?
Yes.
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What are the elements in group 0 on the periodic table known as?
Noble gases.
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What is their (noble gases) lack of relativity because of?
their atoms have full outer shells of electrons, so they do not lose,gain electrons.
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What must particles do for a reaction to happen?
reactant particles must collide with each other and the collision must have enough energy.
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What is the activation energy of a reaction?
The activation energy of a reaction is the minimum energy needed by reactant particles for a reaction to happen. A successful collision has the activation energy or more?
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What is the remainder of this sentence; The greater the rate of reaction , the.......
lower the reaction time.
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How does a fast reaction happen?
happens in a short amount of time such as combustion.
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How does a slow reaction happen?
happens over a long amount of time, such as rusting.
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What happens to the rate of reaction when the temp. increases because the particles gain energy?
the rate of reaction increases.
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What do most reactions involve?
temp. change.
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What happens in exothermic reactions?
heat energy is given out and the reaction mixture increase in temp.
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What happens in endothermic reactions?
heat energy is taken in and the reaction mixture decrease in temp.
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What happens when a chemical reaction take place?
the bonds that hold the atoms together in the molecules of the reactants are broken. The atoms then come together in new arrangements to form the products.
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What do energy profile diagrams model?
Energy profile diagrams model the energy changes that happen during reactions.
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What is a crude oil and how has it formed?
Crude oil is a fossil fuel, formed over millions of years from ancient remains of marine plants and animals.
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What are hydrocarbons?
Compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
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What is fractional distillation used for?
used to separate crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures.
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What is a fraction?
A fraction is a mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points and numbers of carbon atoms.
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What are most of the hydrocarbons from crude oil?
alkanes.
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What are alkanes?
A homologous series of compounds.
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What happens as the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule increases?
the strength of the intermolecular forces increases, more energy must be transferred to overcome these forces, the boiling point increases.
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When does incomplete combustion happen?
happens when the supply of oxygen to a burning fuel is limited.
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Is there always incomplete combustion in vehicle engines?
Yes.
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Rainwater is naturally acidic, but is acid rain more acidic than rainwater.
Yes acid rain is more acidic than normal.
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How can you reduce acid rain?
remove sulfur from petrol diesel oil and fuel oil at the oil refinery before selling it preventing sulfur dioxide leaving power station chimneys adding calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide to fields and lakes to neutralise excess acid from acidrain
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List some fossil fuels that are obtained from crude oils?
petrol,diesel oil,fuel oil.
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list 2 ways in which hydrogen is manufactured?
electrolysis of water, cracking oil fractions.
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Are non-renewable resources used up faster than they are formed?
Yes
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How long does crude oil and natural gas take to form?
millions of years.
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What is cracking?
a process carried out on fractions in oil refineries after fractional distillation.
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What does cracking involve?
Cracking involves breaking down larger alkanes into smaller,more useful alkanes and alkenes.
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What is paraffin?
Paraffin is an alkane.
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How are gases produced?
Gases are produced by volcanic activity formed the earths early atmosphere.
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What do scientists believe the earth contained billions of years ago?
little or no oxygen, a large amount of carbon dioxide, water vapour and small amounts of other gases.
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What is the evidence for what scientists believed the earth contained billions of years ago?
The mixture of gases released by volcanoes. The atmosphere of other planets in our solar system today, which have not been changed by living organisms.
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As the earth cooled what happened?
Water vapour condensed and fell as rain to form the oceans.
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What does the greenhouse effect help?
The greenhouse effect helps to keep the Earth warm enough for living organisms to exist.
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What happens in/to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
increases the greenhouse effects. Then, this increases global warming, climate change and rising sea levels.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do the alkali metals have that are the same properties as typical metals?

Back

good conductors of heat and electricity, shiny when freshly cut.

Card 3

Front

What do they also have compared to most metals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Does the reactivity of the alkali metals increase as you go down the group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Are lithium, sodium and potassium less dense than water and what is the result if they are?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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